The Bulletin of the Adyghe State University,<br />
the series “Region Studies: Philosophy, History, Sociology, Jurisprudence, Political Sciences and Culturology” The Bulletin of the Adyghe State University,
the series “Region Studies: Philosophy, History, Sociology, Jurisprudence, Political Sciences and Culturology”
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#2 / 2022

History

  • Babich I.L.
    AITEK NAMITOKOV: POLITICAL ACTIVITY IN EMIGRATION

    The paper analyzes the political path of one of the major public and political figures of the Western Adygs, Aitek Alievich Namitokov (1885/1892-1963), who found himself in exile in Europe and Turkey. The author conducted research in the archives of France, Germany and Russia, and showed, on the one hand, the complexity of the political path of Aitek Namitokov, on the other, some inconsistency. He had to go through the ways of "ethnicizing" his own political views. The alliance with the Kuban Cossacks, which he supported at the beginning of his emigration, eventually gave way to the complete opposite – he came to the idea of independence of the North Caucasus. The author investigated this process and concluded that A. Namitokov managed to become a prominent political figure in emigration among those mountaineers who defended the independence of the peoples of the North Caucasus. It is noted that the socio-political activity of A. Namitokov affected his personal life, influenced the choice of life strategy after the end of World War II and undoubtedly determined the direction of his research in Turkey, where he moved in 1949.

    doi: 10.53598 / 2410-3691-2022-2-299-15-23

    pdf 15-23.pdf  (695 Kb)

  • Bagdasaryan S.D., Samsonenko T.A., Grishina T.M.
    HISTORICAL AND LEGAL PROJECTION OF THE COLLAPSE OF THE USSR (THE THIRTY-YEAR MILESTONE)

    The modern Russian state is still going through the processes associated with the economic, spiritual, ideological, political and socio-ethnic factors of the collapse of the Union state - the USSR, which has become a project of unprecedented scale in the historical space of the 20th century in terms of lessons and consequences. Therefore, the study of the collapse of the USSR in the historical and legal projection of the thirty-year milestone is relevant in the new conditions of the geopolitical state of the Russian Federation, its development programs, and consideration of all foreign and domestic political factors that still negatively affect the state of the post-Soviet space. The paper attempts to analyze the process of the collapse of the USSR using a set of methods of comparative historical and legal analysis in order to identify patterns and consequences of the political process, as well as to predict and prevent such destructive factors in the future. In addition, the former republics of the USSR - the newly independent states - form their own concepts of national history, form the historical worldview of citizens, ranging from a critical approach to the Soviet legacy and to disappointment with failed liberal economic and political reforms. In these countries, the contradictions between society and the state are clearly manifested. Decision-making is conditioned by historical experience. Moreover, the Russian Federation, like the USSR, is a multi-ethnic and multi-confessional state. The leaders of Russia, as one of the main directions of foreign policy, proclaimed the reintegration of the post-Soviet space, the strengthening and deepening of economic and political cooperation. The recent historical experience in establishing interethnic relations is very important in the light of the problems being solved by the current Russian state and its determination of national policy. Turning to history will reveal new facts, deepen knowledge about famous events. Therefore, the analysis of the collapse of the USSR is especially relevant today, when the state faces the task of strengthening the Russian Federation and not repeating geopolitical lessons.

    doi: 10.53598 / 2410-3691-2022-2-299-24-34

    pdf 24-34.pdf  (542 Kb)

  • Ziyanak Bedirhan
    THE OTTOMAN EMPIRE UNDER MEHMED II (1444-1481) AS AN “IDEAL STATE” IN THE EYES OF THE RUSSIAN THINKER IVAN PERESVETOV

    The reforms of Mehmed II (1444-1446 è 1451-1481) and their consequences were key to the formation of the Ottoman Empire in the 15th century. The purpose of this work is to examine how these events were perceived by their immediate contemporary, the famous Russian thinker and statesman Ivan Peresvetov.The latter exhibited Sultan Mehmed as an object of imitation for Ivan IV (1547-1584). The fact remains that, Peresvetov himself did not visit Constantinople, and he formed his opinion about the state system of Mehmed II, relying on the knowledge that he received in his countries of residence, since they knew about it. Peresvetov's work has often been the subject of historical research, but his views on the Ottoman ruler as an ideal sovereign have not been touched upon. As a result of our research, we come to the conclusion that, for Peresvetov, Sultan Mehmed was the creator of the ideal state and, thus, advised the Tsar to manage the state in a similar manner. The author of the legend regarded that the Tsar should use his power to ensure centralized power and justice.

    doi: 10.53598 / 2410-3691-2022-2-299-35-43

    pdf 35-43.pdf  (637 Kb)

  • Burykina L.V., Fedoseeva L.D.
    D. BELL AND D. LONGWORTH ON THE STATUS AND ROLE REFERENCES OF THE ADYGHE WOMAN IN THE NORTH-WESTERN CAUCASUS IN THE FIRST HALF OF THE NINETEENTH CENTURY

    The model of the social structure of the Adyghe ethnic group was built on the basis of strict observance of the hierarchy of the social structure, with the indisputable authority of traditions, customs, ethical norms of behavior. The status of a woman is a kind of integral indicator in which many problems of society are focused. The study of women's status and role references is one of the main problems of the gender approach, which involves macro- and micro-levels of analysis of the entire system of power relations: from the state to the family and in the family between specific individuals in their daily lives. The paper examines the characteristic features of the traditional Adyghe society in the first half of the 19th century on the basis of a gender analysis of the original travel reports on the territory of Circassia by two emissaries of the British government, D. Bell and D. Longworth. In all social structures, the power of traditions and generally accepted socio-normatives was limitless. Perhaps that is why the traditional Adyghe society seemed to many people confidential, conservative, and static. Modification processes took place extremely slowly until the second half of the 19th century. Diary entries of D. Bell and D. Longworth give researchers valuable information about the social role and status of the Adyghe woman in the traditional Adyghe society. This information is highly reliable because it is the result of observations and reflections of the authors, who did not need to justify anything or adapt to any ideological or political stereotypes. Therefore, they objectively draw the life of the Adyghe peoples, their advantages and disadvantages. A gender–sensitive study of the works of D. Bell and D. Longworth provides an opportunity to identify the social role of women and its significance in Adyghe society, permeated with customs and traditions that make up Adyghe etiquette, which is an important component of the code of unwritten laws - "Adyge Habze". The authors, based on the analysis of the diary entries of D. Bell and D. Longworth, come to the conclusion that a woman in an androcentric Adyghe society occupied a dependent position, but was not a slave of her husband, she was not "enslaved", her gender status was quite high; she did not perceive the existing prohibitions as discrimination, since, along with numerous duties, she had certain rights and enjoyed great respect and honor in the family.

    doi: 10.53598 / 2410-3691-2022-2-299-44-54

    pdf 44-54.pdf  (538 Kb)

  • Vdovchenkov E.V., Leonova D.K.
    ECONOMIC ASPECTS OF THE CRISIS OF THE 3rd CENTURY A.D. ON THE BOSPORUS

    The purpose of this paper is to investigate the economic aspects of the crisis of the 3rd century AD on the Bosporus, which, being located on the edge of the Ecumene, was under significant influence of the barbarian world and its pressure. The crisis was systemic in nature and was caused by foreign, domestic, economic, and climatic factors. From the 1st to the first half of the 3rd century AD the Pontic world was a rather closed economic system, whose trade relations were tied to the internal mutually beneficial ties of the Northern and Southern Black Sea regions, as well as trade contacts with the barbarian world. By the end of the 2nd – beginning of the 3rd century AD, the territory of the Northern, Western and partly Eastern Pontus had a high level of social and economic development. In the 2nd-3rd centuries AD, the volume of trade in agricultural goods with Greek cities decreased. Bosporus begins to live in new economic conditions. The monetary issue and circulation of coins became an indicator of these economic and political changes. The crisis manifested itself in the reduction of handicraft production, agricultural activity and was aggravated by the political vicissitudes of the 3rd century A.D. The result of the crisis was the naturalization of the economy and the erasure of the boundaries between rural and urban settlements, which became characteristic features of the late antique development of the Bosporan Kingdom.

    doi: 10.53598 / 2410-3691-2022-2-299-55-61

    pdf 55-61.pdf  (506 Kb)

  • Gizatov S.M., Nartbaev Sh.Zh., Oteuov N.N.
    STEPPE DIPLOMACY OF KHAN ABYLAI: ON THE HISTORY OF KAZAKH-OIRAT (VOLGA KALMYKS, DZHUNGARS) RELATIONS OF THE 18th CENTURY

    The paper analyzes the content and nature of diplomatic relations between Abylai, who later became the all-Kazakh Khan (1771-1781), and the Kalmyks-Oirats, and their political groups in the fifties of the 18th century. The chosen time period is very indicative from the point of view of the personality characteristics of the then Sultan of the Middle Zhuz Abylai as a cautious and far-sighted politician in relations with his allies and opponents and is significant for a holistic understanding of the content of Kazakh-Oirat contacts not only of the period under consideration, but also their consequences in the future. Special attention is paid to the description of the Khan's diplomatic efforts in ensuring the security of his zhuz, the art of negotiating with representatives of the Qing Empire and Russia. It is noted that Khan Abylai influenced the foreign policy strategy of the last Dzhungarian ruler of Amursan, whom, in tandem with the Chinese emperor, the Kazakh Khan helped to seize the entire Kalmyk state. It is concluded that Abylai's political efforts made it possible to strengthen the centralized khan's power, and this, in turn, led to a significant strengthening of the military-political status of the Kazakh Khanate.

    doi: 10.53598 / 2410-3691-2022-2-299-62-71

    pdf 62-71.pdf  (772 Kb)

  • Golubev L.E.
    TIMUR’S LOCAL CAMPAIGN TO THE ABAS AREA IN 1395

    The paper is devoted to one episode that happened during the military campaign of the Central Asian conqueror Tamerlane to the North Caucasus in 1395, when one of the detachments, pursuing the Golden Horde Emir Udurku, invaded the Abas area. The localization of this area is an open discussion among researchers of the medieval history of the North Caucasus. In science, different options for the location of the Abas area were proposed: in the Elbrus region, in the region of the Darial Gorge and Mountainous Dagestan. The author of the publication proposes a variant of the localization of the Abas area, which he connects with the Abazins tribe, placing it in the region of the left bank of the Malaya Laba, on the northern slope of the Main Caucasian Range, between the Gubs and Urushten rivers. The paper also suggests possible options for the localization of other localities, regions and possessions, such as the possession of a certain feudal lord named Pulad and the Kabchigay fortress. The possessions listed above were located in the immediate vicinity of the Abas area, which could be located between the Urup and Malaya Laba rivers in the Northwestern Caucasus. Probably, the Kabchigay fortress controlled one of the Transcaucasian caravan routes from the North Caucasus through the Pseashkho pass in Transcaucasia.

    doi: 10.53598 / 2410-3691-2022-2-299-72-79

    pdf 72-79.pdf  (513 Kb)

  • Såminà G.V., Drach G.V.
    SOME TRANSFORMATIONS OF THE BALKARS ISLAMIC SPIRITUAL TRADITION IN CIVILIZATIONAL DYNAMICS

    In this paper, the authors have studied the stages of the formation of the Islamic spiritual tradition and its transformation in civilizational dynamics in order to understand the degree of stability of ethnic groups to the challenges of a globalizing world. For the first time, the origins of the religious conflict within one ethnic group have been considered as potentially undermining its resistance to modern processes. The authors analyzed the stages of the formation of the Islamic spiritual tradition in the North Caucasus, identified changes in the religious beliefs of the Balkars in historical development, marked modern transformations in their religious beliefs that occur in the era of globalization. The material gives grounds to conclude that the Islamic spiritual tradition in its civilizational development in the North Caucasus, studied on the example of the Balkars, acquired a syncretic form, having absorbed the traditions of pre-Muslim beliefs. The namely this syncretic form of Islam, formed over the centuries in this region, is the core of its traditional culture. The authors summarize that various innovations are possible in the religious system of ethnic groups, which will subsequently be accepted by the ethnic community and become their tradition, but these transformations of religious beliefs must stand the test of time, confirming the ability to sustaining the ethnic identity, and not to destabilizing the unity of the people in its modern development.

    doi: 10.53598 / 2410-3691-2022-2-299-80-87

    pdf 80-87.pdf  (512 Kb)

  • Shazzo A.M.
    THE HEAD OF THE NARTS ORZEMEDZH AND THE GOD OF ANCIENT EGYPT OSIRIS AS CORRELATES

    The author of this work makes a comparative analysis of the image of Orzemedzh, which is given in the legends of the epic of the Circassians (Adygs) as the leader of Khase, the body of the Nart self-government, and one of the main gods of Ancient Egypt, Osiris, who brought agriculture to the Egyptians and ruled both on earth and in the other world. The study suggests seeing the selected characters somewhat different, perhaps more realistic in terms of their social status, the religious worldview of the society in which they are implanted, their ideological aspirations, moral, and, in general, cultural guidelines. The paper was written according to a scheme built from interrelated and mutually conditioned concepts: the Nart God is "Thie", the Nart character is their Habze and the Nart society is their Khase. The monotheistic understanding of the "Thie" by the pra-Circassians, on the one hand, forms their high morality, on the other, generates the corresponding socio-political structure introduced in the territory they have mastered. The author also suggests that paganism with its feuds between the gods does not improve, but worsens the moral climate of society. In line with the above scheme of concepts, it is also evident how noticeable a trace was left by the ancestors in ancient Egypt.

    doi: 10.53598 / 2410-3691-2022-2-299-88-100

    pdf 88-100.pdf  (676 Kb)

    Sociology

  • Ilyinova N.A.
    IN THE WAKE OF THE CORONAVIRUS: AN EMPIRICAL STUDY OF TRUST IN POWER

    The article presents the results of an empirical study of trust in the authorities in the regional communities of Adyghea and Krasnodar Region during the fourth "wave" of the spread of coronavirus. The pandemic demands the consolidation of society and the state in order to overcome the consequences of the spread of Covid-19. The results of the study point to a contradictory situation: against the background of trust in the authorities, the population does not feel safe and accuses the authorities of using the situation with the coronavirus to their advantage. Trust is a necessary condition for the effective operation of the authorities, the power that people do not trust is short-lived. The formation of trust is a long process, the foundation of which is laid by the good faith and honesty of representatives of the authorities. The author considers the creation of a favorable information and communication background and the creation of conditions for external examination of the activities of the authorities to be the mechanisms of trust formation.

    doi: 10.53598 / 2410-3691-2022-2-299-101-108

    pdf 101-108.pdf  (971 Kb)

  • Nagoi A.A.
    LEVELS OF CULTURAL IDENTITY FORMATION

    The paper reveals the theoretical foundations of the structural and functional identification of the levels of cultural identity formation. It is argued that the search for a conceptual and methodological basis for the study of cultural identity, taking into account civilizational, personal and sociological approaches, is possible within the framework of an interdisciplinary culturological synthesis of the value-normative concept of cultural policy and the model of the sociocultural process of symbolizing success. In this paper, the author relies on the theoretical model of the Russian scientist G.V. Bakumenko, who considers identity through the prism of structural functionalism, activity and system approaches. This makes it possible to significantly strengthen the heuristic potential of the sociology of culture in explaining its integrative characteristics. The thesis is confirmed that the pragmatic understanding of cultural identity basing on the structural unity of its organizational and institutional levels is closely interfaced with the presence of emotional attributions that find expression in individual, national and interethnic levels of identification. Based on the analysis made, it can be concluded that the separation of the levels of cultural identity formation expands the prognostic possibilities of socio-humanitarianism in explicating the dynamic nature of identification processes in the conditions of cultural convergence and divergence.

    doi: 10.53598 / 2410-3691-2022-2-299-109-119

    pdf 109-119.pdf  (563 Kb)

  • Sandzhiev Z.N.
    ANALYSIS OF APPROACHES TO ASSESSING THE STATE OF THE LABOR POTENTIAL OF RURAL YOUTH

    Introduction. The purpose of the paper is to classify approaches to assessing the state of the labor potential of rural youth and to determine the optimal system of criteria and indicators that will make it possible to make managerial decisions. Relevance of the study lies in the fact that currently, regulatory legal acts of the federal and regional levels are aimed at the development of rural areas. According to the Strategy of Sustainable Development of Rural Territories of the Russian Federation for the period up to 2030, the development of rural territories is aimed at creating and improving the quality of life of the rural population to perform national functions, but at the moment the standard of living in rural areas significantly lags behind urban. The problem of the study is what is the optimal system of criteria and indicators that make it possible to make effective managerial decisions. Methods. The research methods included the analysis of scientific literature, regulatory sources and statistical data, the method of deduction and induction. The main ideas of the study, the results obtained and their discussion. Effective managerial decisions for the development of labor and demographic resources can be made only on the basis of a system of criteria and indicators reflecting the state of the labor potential of this contingent. The methods of assessing labor potential used in practice can be divided into administrative, economic and socio-psychological. The assessment of labor potential is based on quantitative and qualitative components. To assess the state of the labor potential of rural youth, it is optimal to apply an integrated approach and evaluate statistical data and data from sociological surveys of young people on the problem of labor potential. The developed system of indicators will allow to more accurately determine the current state of the labor potential of rural youth and develop adequate managerial solutions. Conclusion. The theoretical and practical significance of the results obtained lies in supplement of the theoretical provisions; the results can be used for teaching students. The issue of improving the labor potential of rural youth and solving the problems of introducing modern scientific achievements into their daily lives remains relevant for further study.

    doi: 10.53598 / 2410-3691-2022-2-299-120-128

    pdf 120-128.pdf  (516 Kb)

  • Khanakhu R.A., Shaov A.A.
    ETHICAL AND NORMATIVE FOUNDATIONS OF THE ADYGS’ SOCIOCULTURAL SPACE TRANSFORMATION

    The paper discusses the features of the evolution of the ethical and normative system of the Adygs. The emphasis is on substantiating the viability and relevance of traditional ethical imperatives in the modern ethnocultural space of the Adyghe society. The role of practical philosophy in the process of reproduction of the ethnocultural world of the ethnos, the influence of the cultural landscape on the formation of the ideological principles of the Adygs is analyzed. They are represented through the harmonization of the ethical and aesthetic content of traditional culture, which ensures the continuity of social patterns in the ethnic space of the Adygs. It is noted that the fundamental socionormative system of the Adygs correlates with the cultural mechanisms of the regulation of consciousness, basing the ways and mechanisms of self-identification of the ethnos in the conditions of erosion of the axiological core. Of particular importance in the reproduction of the sociocultural space of the Adygs is the language, which, by structuring the ontological and epistemological meanings of the spiritual world of the ethnos, regulates the perception of the relationship of a person with society and the environment, thereby giving them a rational character and contributing to the preservation of the moral personality as a basic socioanthropological type. It is concluded that ethnic solidarity in a transforming society is conditioned by loyalty and trust as the basic socio-ethical principles of the Adyghe society.

    doi: 10.53598 / 2410-3691-2022-2-299-129-137

    pdf 129-137.pdf  (526 Kb)