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#4 / 2021
THE CIVILIZATIONAL DIMENSION OF THE STATE IDEOLOGY OF POST-SOVIET RUSSIA
The article proposes an analysis of the dynamics of the state ideology of post-Soviet Russia, revealing changes in the vector of its civilizational orientation. Based on a content analysis of official ideological texts, the basis of which is the messages of the President of the Russian Federation, the author concludes that the distinctly Westernized orientation of the 1990s two decades later changed to the opposite. If in the 1990s and 2000s Russia was positioned as part of the West, then in the last decade it has been declared that it has its own civilizational identity, which has a soil (Eurasian) basis, largely opposing the values of Western civilization immersed in a crisis. Particular importance is paid to the search and substantiation of the paradigm of the socio-historical development of Russia, the preservation of its identity and civilizational identity in the context of modern geopolitical transformations. In particular, in the mid-2010s the foreign policy strategy of the Russian state is focused on countering global destructive processes, which is expressed in its active participation in the fight against international terrorism. It is emphasized that in the late 2010s. There is a change in the pro-Western course of Russia to Eurasian, which involves the preservation of equality, mutual respect, national identity and state sovereignty of the participating countries of Eurasian integration.
doi: 10.53598 / 2410-3691-2021-4-289-15-24
DEVELOPMENT OF PRODUCTION OF LIGHT TANKS AND SELF-PROPELLED UNITS IN THE USSR DURING THE GREAT PATRIOTIC WAR
The paper is devoted to the study of the development of geography of light tank building in the USSR during the Great Patriotic War. In the first months of the war the Soviet leadership decided to dramatically increase the production of light tanks T-60 at various enterprises of the country. The simplicity of the design of this machine allowed this process to develop relatively successfully. In autumn 1941, the light tank building industry, as well as the whole tank industry of the western part of the USSR was evacuated to the east. As a result, in the first half of 1942 there was a system of tank assembly and armored production plants under the control of Commissariats of Tank Industry and Medium Machine Building. But already in the middle of the year capacity of enterprises of People's Commissariat of Tank Industry engaged in light tank building started to be used for increasing production of medium tanks. The process of reorientation during 1943 of all the remaining production facilities for the production of the light self-propelled artillery systems SU-76 was considered separately. However, in summer 1944 the last enterprise in the system of the People's Commissariat of Tank Industry which produced light armored vehicles ceased to operate: Kirov Plant No.38 was transferred to Kharkov to set up the production of new T-44 tanks. The conclusion is drawn that throughout the entire period of the Great Patriotic War there was a process of using the production capacities of the light tank industry to increase the output of medium tanks.
doi: 10.53598 / 2410-3691-2021-4-289-25-33
Nadezhin A.D., Penkovtsev R.V.
EUROPEAN COOPERATION AGAINST CORRUPTION
The purpose of the research is to identify problems of cooperation of European states in anti-corruption cooperation, as well as to summarize practical experience in combating corruption in the European Union. In order to achieve the above-mentioned objective of the research, we should solve the following tasks: first, to characterize and analyze the basis for anti-corruption activities in European countries; secondly, to identify the mechanism of international legal regulation of cooperation of European states in combating corruption; thirdly, to identify and reveal the main current policies of the European Union and other European countries in the field of combating corruption. The paper provides an analysis of the activities of European states, their associations, as well as their authorized bodies within the framework of cooperation in preventing, combating and fighting corruption at the regional and international levels. The work examines in a comprehensive manner the political and legal mechanisms of cooperation between European countries in the context of anti-corruption activities. Scientific novelty lies in the study of the peculiarities of international anti-corruption policy using an example of the European region. As a result, it is determined that a key factor of successful international cooperation in the fight against corruption remains the joint work of states within the framework of specialized regional and international organizations
doi: 10.53598 / 2410-3691-2021-4-289-34-41
FORMATION OF THE STATE WINE REGALITY (MONOPOLY) IN THE 16TH – 18TH CENTURIES
This paper is part of a research devoted to the study of the law status and rules of state regulation of the drinking industry in Russia. The author analyzes the formation of the state alcohol monopoly from the 16th century until the beginning of the reforms of Catherine II in the 18th century. The purpose of the retrospective analysis is to characterize changes in the state-legal regulation of drinking trade and to analyze the effectiveness of measures carried out by the Russian state. Since the reign of Ivan IV, the alcohol trade was considered by the state as a source of replenishment of the treasury. But at different stages of Russian history, the alcohol monopoly faced various problems. Among them are the secret sale of alcoholic beverages, unfair treatment of state revenues, the spread of drunkenness and riots due to excessive activity of tax farmers in attempts to collect profits for the drinking tax, competition between "loyal people" and tax farmers for the sale of alcohol, competition of the nobility and merchants for the right to produce alcoholic beverages, problems with collecting income from the sale of alcohol drinks to the treasury, etc. The enumerated list of problems was the reason that Catherine II decided to radically change the procedure for regulating distilling industry, as well as wine trade.
doi: 10.53598 / 2410-3691-2021-4-289-42-47
Zhuikov A.A., Mikhaylov A.P.
THE QUALITY OF INFORMATION AS THE BASIS OF THE SOCIAL ORDER OF THE POST-INDUSTRIAL SOCIETY IN THE 21ST CENTURY
The post-industrial society of the 21st century is seriously dependent on the quality of information, since it is information that forms the basis of many modern phenomena and processes, and therefore predetermines the functioning of social institutions and subsystems. In this regard, a significant problem is that the social system does not have effective mechanisms for countering harmful information. Numerous gaps are actualized in it, potentially or really dysfunctional according to the information criterion. This, in turn, creates informational risks to the social order and stability of society. The publication analyzes factors influencing the decrease in the quality of information. Those are information overload, the activities of aggressive communicators, the spread of self-relayed information in the virtual space, and the dysfunctionality of social institutions and social subsystems in conditions of innovative development. The research shows that the quality of information can influence the construction of social order parameters. It is concluded that the information resources of the traditional and innovative plan require conceptual understanding through empirical sociological research, based on which it is possible to form an effective system for preventing and combating harmful information.
doi: 10.53598 / 2410-3691-2021-4-289-48-54
Lezhebokov A.À., Kursheva F.Kh.
THE STATE OF THE NON-PROFIT SECTOR OF THE KARACHAY-CHERKESS REPUBLIC
The non-profit sector is currently an important element of civil society. The developed countries of the world have accumulated quite a lot of experience in the interaction of organizations of the non-profit sector with business and the state. Participation in the activities of non-profit organizations is an extremely common practice of the population, providing opportunities for realizing the potential of an individual and realizing rights and freedoms. In Russia, the non-profit sector is currently at the initial stages of formation, meeting resistance and various obstacles from other participants in the civil dialogue, while the activity of citizens remains extremely low. At the same time, significant economic differentiation of regions is the main reason for the development of territorial organizations of the non-profit sector. In subsidized regions, the performance indicators of non-profit sector organizations are extremely low, which is confirmed by the results of the analysis of statistical information carried out in the Karachay-Cherkess Republic and the results of a sociological survey. To increase the activity of the non-profit sector, it is necessary to increase the overall economic prosperity of the region, expand state support for the relevant organizations. In general, the non-profit sector is able to act as a powerful factor in the process of sociocultural modernization.
doi: 10.53598 / 2410-3691-2021-4-289-55-63
PR ACTIVITIES IN CONFLICT MANAGEMENT
The interaction between people is social in nature. In this connection, public opinion is an integral part of the life of society. Crises and conflicts also cannot be excluded from modern society. In this regard, one of the main tasks of PR is conflict management and their further settlement. PR does not have an unambiguous concept, and the author, citing various approaches to PR definition, associates himself with individual researchers of this problem, who consider the public relations as a tool for influencing social processes.
Mass communication in the context of the information society in conflict management uses a wide range of different types, methods, technologies for influencing the consciousness and behavior of a mass audience. Conflicts are the result of a violation of generally accepted norms, a mismatch of values, and therefore components of public opinion. In this regard, the development of the conflict situation is directly related to PR activities: compromise, localization of the conflict and prevention of its growth, or its most undesirable phase - a catastrophe.
doi: 10.53598 / 2410-3691-2021-4-289-64-69
ORGANIZATIONAL FACTORS OF THE FORMATION OF MANAGERIAL CULTURE OF INTERNAL AFFAIRS BODIES
The paper describes the factor model of the formation of the managerial culture of the internal affairs bodies. The purpose of the study is to identify and describe the organizational factors in the formation of the managerial culture of the internal affairs bodies of Russia. The main emphasis is placed on service-professional, group, administrative-organizational and personal factors. The object of research is managerial culture. The subject is the organizational factors in the formation of the managerial culture of the internal affairs bodies. The subgroup of administrative and organizational factors has been given a little more attention, since it takes into account the regional specifics of the life of the internal affairs bodies. The system-centric orientation of managerial interactions in the Russian police is largely due to the currently accepted way of organizing service activities. In the group of personal factors, an important role is played by the preparedness and readiness of employees to perceive the opportunities provided to them by the internal affairs bodies for self-realization. The proportions of management and self-management in the organization depend on this. In conclusion, the article shows that in order to understand the manifestations and intra-organizational conditioning of the managerial culture of the internal affairs bodies, it is important to understand the specifics of the influence of all groups of factors. Understanding organizational factors opens up the possibility of optimizing the managerial culture in the organization.
doi: 10.53598 / 2410-3691-2021-4-289-70-78
LEADING DETERMINANTS OF PROFESSIONAL ACTIVITY OF STATE EMPLOYEES IN REGIONAL AUTHORITIES
This article raises the issue of applying additional motivational determinants in regional authorities. Some of the well-known approaches to motivation offered by scientists from various fields of knowledge are presented. On the example of the state civil service, the possibilities of introducing new staff motivation tools that do not contradict the current legislation are determined. The necessity of conducting a cyclical and comprehensive analysis of employee satisfaction with working conditions, a systematic discussion with the team of emerging problems is substantiated. Fixing comments and suggestions made, for example, on the interior component, as well as on compliance with the requirements of hygiene, sanitation and aesthetics, is a complex cyclical work to ensure proper working conditions for employees of the authority. It is noted that motivational factors can be: the initiation of activities aimed at improving corporate culture, the development of physical culture in the team and other mechanisms that have an indirect impact on the development of a healthy psycho-emotional climate. Undoubtedly, the strongest motivational determinants in the public sector are the professional development of a civil servant and timely promotion. However, the use of other tools of non-material incentives for employees can have a positive impact on the activity in the professional activities of an individual civil servant.
doi: 10.53598 / 2410-3691-2021-4-289-79-84
INTERDISCIPLINARY METHODOLOGY AT A SCHOLAR SCHOOL
The paper deals with the problem of formation, development and methodological orientation of the interdisciplinary scholar school of Adyghe State University. Some features of the scholar school are presented, in particular its openness, methodological dialogue and readiness to cooperate with scientists from different schools and regions.
The author carries out a historical tour of the formation of a scholar school, which coincided with the peak of scientific interest in identity in the world, and the development of scientific methods at different stages of the development of the team. Noting the limited research methods of classical and non-classical science, the publication shows the significance/effectiveness of an interdisciplinary approach in the study of the North Caucasus region as a complex self-developing system. Analyzing the scientific results obtained owing to grants from RFFI, RHSF, RNF and international projects, revealing the logic of the development of a scholar school, the possibilities of different methods in the research practice of scientists and graduate students, as well as their significance in Caucasian studies are shown.
The research discloses the heuristic possibilities of an interdisciplinary methodology and the need to strengthen it in research practice; application of the principles of convergence of natural science and humanities knowledge/disciplines/scientific teams of the university; the use of qualitative methods in solving evolutionary problems and in nonlinear/mathematical modeling of regional phenomena.
doi: 10.53598 / 2410-3691-2021-4-289-85-93
Shulmin M.P., Gibazov R.R.
ASSESSMENT OF THE INCLUSIVE ENVIRONMENTAL STATE BY THE PARTICIPANTS OF THE EDUCATIONAL PROCESS IN TOMSK
The paper is devoted to the study of inclusion in universities in Tomsk, conducted in March-November 2020. The study is focused on the subjective assessment of the state of the inclusive environment made by the participants of the educational process: students with disabilities and representatives of Tomsk universities. The publication identifies the problems faced by students with disabilities when entering the university and in the learning process. Representatives of universities shared information on how successfully an inclusive environment is created in their educational institutions. The paper also considers regulatory legal acts and relevant literature, contributing to the study of the process of introducing inclusive ideas into the educational environment. Particular attention is paid to conceptualizing the concepts of "social exclusion", "segregation", "integration" and "inclusion". Conclusions are made about the state and prospects of development of inclusive education in Tomsk universities. In general, the respondents assessed positively the created inclusive environment in the universities of Tomsk, although it was initially assumed that the assessment would be negative. The probable way of further development of inclusive higher education in Russia is considered.
doi: 10.53598 / 2410-3691-2021-4-289-94-104
CULTURAL ASPECT OF THE FEMALE WORLD IN SEMIOTICS
The purpose of this paper is to study the transformation of the world of women in the semiotic space of culture. The study is aimed at identifying the position and disclosing the semiotic features of the female phenomenon at the family institute. To conduct a comprehensive analysis of the status of women in family cultures of different peoples, the author refers to the methodological resource of semiotics. To this end, the methods of comparative and retrospective analysis, as well as inductive and deductive process analysis are used. The publication defines the family as the fact of semiosis, while studying the semiotic characteristics of women in this system. It is argued that modernization processes strengthen the ambivalent status of a woman who inertially retains status-role dependence on men. The novelty of this paper is that the analyses are carried out in the comparative context of Azerbaijani and other world cultures. The research shows that the problem of the semiosis of women's clothing goes through the modernization of women's clothing under the influence of Europeanization, which causes the emasculation and extinction of traditional forms and meanings of authentic culture. An analysis is made of the consequences of the transformation of gender relations, which support gender inequality and demonstrate the transition of women to secondary positions.
doi: 10.53598 / 2410-3691-2021-4-289-105-113
Lyausheva S.A., Nekhay V.N., Samsonenko T.A., Khakunov N.Kh., Khunagov R.D.
AESTHETIC DEVELOPMENT OF PHYSICAL CULTURE OF PERSONALITY IN CONDITIONS OF TERMINALIZATION OF HEALTHY LIFESTYLE VALUE
The paper considers the peculiarities of the influence of physical culture on the formation and development of aesthetic values of a person. Basic theoretical approaches to determination of place and role of physical culture in formation of socio-ethical, activity and aesthetic characteristics of personality are analyzed. Aesthetic education has greatly expanded the perfectionist-pragmatic orientation of exercise through the cultivation of aesthetic ideals, aesthetic tastes/needs and the incorporation of aesthetic knowledge into the structure of the training process. The principles of Olympism, which strengthen the motivational resource of physical culture and sports, direct the person to a dialectical understanding of the aesthetics of the body and spirit. Based on the generalization of the results of a sociological study conducted by the All-Russian Center for the Study of Public Opinion in 2021, it is concluded that in modern society the need for the use and further introduction of aesthetic education becomes the basis for inclusion in physical education. Remaining built in the social normative nature of the personality, the system of physical training proclaims the healthy lifestyle (HL) an ethical and vitalistic imperative of social development and translates it as the terminal value of the present.
doi: 10.53598 / 2410-3691-2021-4-289-114-120
Tvanba L.R., Beniya M.À.
THE IMPORTANCE OF ETIQUETTE FOR TRADITIONAL ABKHAZIAN SOCIETY: FOLKLORE BASED ANALYSIS
The paper describes the role of etiquette in the Abkhazian society within the framework of folklore sources. The subject of the study is the etiquette, which is an integral part of the traditional Abkhazian society culture. The relevance and novelty of the topic lies in the fact that the role of etiquette in society is considered for the first time through the prism of Abkhazian folklore. In the course of the study, the methods of system and cultural analysis, as well as the method of source analysis were used. It is stated in the conclusion that etiquette, as a system behavioral model, enables Abkhazians to adhere to a certain moral model of behavior, based on its individual elements. Each element serves as a consolidating factor and prevents the separation of society. After examining the folklore sources, we can infer that particular etiquette norms have certainly changed over time, but the basic behavioral model has remained the same.
doi: 10.53598 / 2410-3691-2021-4-289-121-128