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#3 / 2021
TO THE QUESTION OF THE SUPPLY OF PARTISANS AND UNDERGROUNDERS OF THE CRIMEA WITH THE HELP OF AVIATION IN 1941–1944
The paper is devoted to the problem of analyzing the material support during the Great Patriotic War of the partisans and underground fighters of the Crimea, which has not been sufficiently studied in Russian historiography. On the basis of unpublished materials from the funds of the State Archives of the Republic of Crimea introduced into scientific circulation, the author examines the reasons that prompted the Council of People’s Commissars of the Crimean Autonomous Soviet Socialist Republic and the military command of the North Caucasian Front to organize the help for the “people’s avengers”. The publication discusses the main activities of the Crimean Regional Committee of the All-Union Communist Party of Bolsheviks to provide assistance to the anti-fascist Resistance: the preparation of supply bases, aircraft, flight personnel, the supply of food, the organization of airfields. Attention is focused on the factor of assistance of the Soviet Air Force in the transportation of members of reconnaissance, sabotage and underground organizations from the bases of the North Caucasus to the territory of the occupied Crimea, and in the transfer of classified information to the location of the Soviet command.
The author arrives at the conclusion that thanks to the measures carried out by the Soviet leadership, a powerful air bridge was organized between the North Caucasus and the partisan airfields of the Crimea. This made it possible to provide the partisans and underground fighters of the Crimea with the necessary supplies of food, medicines, weapons, ammunition at the turning point of the Great Patriotic War.
doi: 10.53598 / 2410-3691-2021-3-284-15-24
SOCIAL STRUCTURE OF ANCIENT RUSSIA
The paper examines the features of the social stratification of the Ancient system at an early stage of development, the stages of the emergence of various strata depending on political events from the 10th to the 12th centuries. The subject of this research is the process of the formation of social strata in the ancient European state. The purpose of the publication is to consider the social structure of Ancient Rus, to determine and describe the stratification and interaction of strata with each other, to study this issue, political events that affect these processes. The main research issue was the historical events that influenced the formation of social strata from the 10th to the 12th centuries, the emergence of social strata in a given historical period and the forms of their interaction. Answering this question, the author arrives at the conclusion that the disintegration of the patriarchal-communal system, the formation of a feudal vassalage, the principle of primacy, the princely squad and other internal political events influenced the formation of social strata of the state. In connection with these historical events, it is possible to trace the stages of the origin of social strata of the population, their composition, social functions in society and the state.
doi: 10.53598 / 2410-3691-2021-3-284-25-29
ON THE FORMATION OF ETHNOMEDICINE OF THE NORTH CAUCASUS PEOPLES
The paper is devoted to the history of formation of ethnomedicine of the peoples of the North Caucasus. The task is to clarify the dynamics of the historical process regarding the formation of ethnomedicine of the peoples of the North Caucasus. The research materials of many authors on the history of medicine confirm the high effectiveness of medicinal art in the provision of surgical care, which was noted by many observers during the Caucasian War. Undoubtedly, the experience of medicinal art in the Caucasus has a very ancient history. It accumulated empirically and, passing from father to son, formed dynasties of doctors who had their own experience and their secrets of healing. The mutual influence of the cultures of peoples, in particular Arab medicine, which contributed to the formation of doctors of the traditional Arab school of medicine, is not excluded. Thus, folk healers can be divided into two types: whose treatment contained pre-Islamic and Islamic methods. It is noted that it was people's doctors with pre-Islamic experience who accompanied the troops on campaigns and showed the high effectiveness of their methods, having received a well-deserved assessment of many doctors during the Caucasian war.
doi: 10.53598 / 2410-3691-2021-3-284-30-36
ETHNOCULTURAL INEQUALITY IN THE CONSCIOUSNESS OF DAGESTANI YOUTH AND PROSPECTS FOR CIVIL CONSOLIDATION
The paper deals with the problem of ethnocultural inequality in the scientific literature and in the mass consciousness of the students of the Republic of Dagestan in the context of civil identification. Based on the analysis of a sociological study conducted by the author in 2021, the publication reveals a correlation between the perception of points of view about the violation or maintenance of ethno-religious parity in Russia and the level of civil identification. The author's point of view is that the difficulty for the civil integration of modern Russian society is not the "set of identities" of Russians, but rather their uneven position in the socio-political structure of the Russian state. The author emphasizes the importance of forming a civil nation as a supra-ethnic and supra-religious formation, but emphasizes the prematurity of the success of this process without equality, taking into account the ethno-cultural characteristics of the Russian peoples. In this connection, it is concluded that it is necessary to create a mechanism for coordinating the interests of ethnic and religious communities in the subjects of the Russian Federation in order to increase the civil identity of the population. Since, according to the author, providing conditions for the development of ethno-cultural characteristics of people increases the sense of their civic loyalty, creates prerequisites for openness and tolerance to representatives of other ethno-cultural traditions.
doi: 10.53598 / 2410-3691-2021-3-284-61-71
SEMANTIC COMPONENTS OF ATTITUDES TOWARDS THE HOMELAND IN THE CULTURAL SPACE OF YOUNG PEOPLE
The paper analyses the meanings of attitudes towards the Homeland in the cultural space of Russian youth. Some of the semantic components of the relationship to the Motherland are largely associated with the history of the Russian people and find their expression in the national character in the form of spiritual and moral values. These basic components are reflected in the normative documents governing the upbringing of the younger generation. The role of such values is the fulfillment of moral duty to the Motherland in the form of service to it and readiness to defend it.
Another part of the semantic components of attitudes towards the Motherland is formed within the framework of youth subcultures. These meanings are born in the process of young people's reconsideration of their attitude to this phenomenon. The result of this process is a reconstruction of social reality by youth groups according to their symbolic universes.
The publication analyzes the data obtained during sociological study on the relationship between mental and modern traits of national character with the deviant meaning of the image of the Motherland in the cultural space of young people. The research shows that contemporary traits are connected with the deviant meaning of forming attitudes towards the Homeland rather than with mental traits.
doi: 10.53598 / 2410-3691-2021-3-284-110-121
Pilipenko A.E., Panteleev V.G.
SOCIAL ACTIVITY OF STUDENTS: EXPERIENCE IN RESEARCH OF SEMANTIC IDEAS
The article attempts to analyze the social activity of youth in the context of semantic representations of university students. Based on the materials of a regional empirical study, the meanings of activity are analyzed, as well as those meanings that are significant in the self-regulation of socially directed and individualized activity of students. The research shows that the meaning of social activity in the perception of university youth correlates with the priorities of executive authorities involved in the implementation of youth policy; the dependence between the frequency of students' participation in social activity practices and the willingness to perceive this activity through institutionally organized forms is determined. The dominant ideological attitudes among university youth are analyzed and their connection with the motivation of social activity is described. The contradiction between the semantic idea of social activity and the activity manifested is revealed: the students determine this activity basing on the altruistic values, but in practice, hedonistic and instrumental values are at the heart of the activities of young people.
doi: 10.53598 / 2410-3691-2021-3-284-84-97
EUTHANASIA – A CHOICE BETWEEN DEATH AND DEATH (THE VIEW OF EUROPE AND RUSSIA)
Many interesting topics appear in the modern scientific discourse. They consider the most acute problems of society and one of them is a taboo topic-euthanasia. This problem is of an interdisciplinary nature. Philosophers within the framework of bioethics comprehend the moral aspects. Psychologists "solve" the dilemma of "good/bad", "murder/suicide/humane act of assistance". Lawyers are working on regulatory legal acts to protect the rights of patients/doctors/beneficiaries, which are often difficult to replace. Doctors, facing the "unbearable physical and psychological pain" of patients and close relatives, offer their own solutions to the problem, physicists, chemists, geneticists do not stay away, developing neurotechnologies, regenerative medicine, pharmacology, bio and gene technologies. Politicians also do not stand aside, unfolding broad discussions, arranging political debates, developing dividends.
Sociologists considering this social problem measure the "degree of public opinion". Society as a living complex organism relying on its mental programs reacts in different ways: from complete rejection to legalization of this procedure. One of the important problems of the medical professional community is the problem of ensuring a “dignified death” of terminally ill patients and the related problem of euthanasia. The opinion of doctors is polar. Doctor`s understanding of the problems of legalizing euthanasia is influenced by various factors: firstly, values, secondly, experience and place of work (doctors of palliative departments, hospices, oncologists with long work experience are more inclined to legalize euthanasia), thirdly, technical, technological, pharmacological support of a medical institution, and fourthly, the regulatory component
doi: 10.53598 / 2410-3691-2021-3-284-37-43
Vodenko K.V., Susimenko E.V., Nekrasov E.E.
DESIGNING THE FUTURE IN EDUCATIONAL STRATEGIES OF RUSSIAN YOUTH
The presented paper implements the authors' attempt to understand, on the basis of an activist approach, the design of the future in the educational strategies of Russian youth. Based on a conceptual socio-empirical analysis, the authors of the publication conclude that most young Russians share the positions of adaptability, actualism as a choice of educational strategy. This is determined by factors of an objective and subjective nature, where the objectification of social conditions acts as an influence on the subjective choice of youth. Noting the importance of social and territorial differentiation, the authors of the paper substantiate the provision on the design of the future, on the formation of lifestyles and a set of life goals of Russian youth as an opportunity to escape the limited pragmatic turn in education. As a final judgment, the relationship between the orientation to skilled activities and the configuration of responses to changes in the educational system is determined. It is concluded that in domestic social science and humanities there is a need to understand the educational strategies of Russian youth as the ability of Russian youth to design the image of the future, taking into account the growing influence of social innovations.
doi: 10.53598 / 2410-3691-2021-3-284-44-53
Delova L.A., Kalashaova D.A.
SOCIAL FEATURES OF CORONAVIRUS INFECTION PREVENTION IN THE STUDENT ENVIRONMENT: ACCORDING TO THE RESULTS OF SOCIOLOGICAL SURVEY
The work examines the results of the author's sociological study conducted in May 2021. The survey was conducted among students learning at the Medical Institute of the Maykop State University of Technology in order to study the attitude of students to the need to comply with measures to prevent coronavirus infection, as well as to vaccinate the population and the attitude of medical students to them during the lockdown period and after it. The results of the study showed a high degree of responsibility of students - future medical experts for their health and that of others. At the same time, some respondents demonstrated nihilism towards COVID-19 prevention measures during this period. At the same time, the survey participants showed a high level of tolerance towards students - citizens of other states studying with them.
The answers of medical students to the questions of the questionnaire show an understanding of the parameters, meaning and content of the restrictions introduced during the pandemic, and the need for residents of the region to comply with the measures recommended by Rospotrebnadzor for the prevention and non-proliferation of coronavirus infection.
doi: 10.53598 / 2410-3691-2021-3-284-54-60
THE STRUCTURE OF THE MECHANISM FOR STRENGTHENING THE TRUST OF THE AUTHORITIES: THEORETICAL AND METHODOLOGICAL ANALYSIS
The paper presents the structure of the mechanism for strengthening the trust of the authorities. The study of the mechanism of strengthening the trust of the authorities is relevant, since in the conditions of the spread of coronavirus infection, there is a decrease in public confidence in the main social institutions, including political ones. The relevance of the issue under consideration is related to the importance of identifying information, organizational, legal and managerial technologies for building trust that can be implemented by regional authorities. The work defines the main elements of the mechanism: subject, object, basic norms of interaction, environmental conditions, interaction, planned and real result. Basing on a theoretical study, we conclude that strengthening the trust of the authorities involves interaction between the subjects of socio-political processes, represented by management groups, the media, public associations and groups, citizens, which results in the harmonization of relations between social structures and authorities.
doi: 10.53598 / 2410-3691-2021-3-284-72-77
YOUTH CULTURE IN THE NEW SOCIAL REALITY
The paper discusses the specifics of youth culture in the new social reality, determined by the consequences of the pandemic of a new coronavirus infection and accelerating the pace of change in social processes. The author focuses on the difficulties of adapting the social system to new global challenges and risks in conditions of uncertainty and on the difficulties of building life strategies for young people as the most vulnerable part of society. The publication points to the pronounced relevance of scientific research on the processes taking place in the youth environment against the background of the pandemic in the field of rethinking the mutual influence of culture and various socio-demographic groups. Special attention is paid to the attitude of young people to the values and social experience of the older generation. The author notes the role of youth culture in shaping the self-expression and worldview of the young generation in accordance with social realities, as well as the specifics of virtual communication and the desire for social activity of young people.
doi: 10.53598 / 2410-3691-2021-3-284-78-83
POLITICAL AND LEGAL FRAMEWORK AND PROBLEMS OF THE DEVELOPMENT OF ETHNOCULTURAL COMPONENT IN THE ACTIVITIES OF REGIONAL UNIVERSITIES OF THE RUSSIAN FEDERATION
The paper is devoted to the study of the degree of compliance of the modern policy of the Russian state in the field of education, the processes taking place in regional universities with the political and legal foundations of the multinational Russian Federation, laid down in the Constitution, and other important documents that determine the principles of its state-territorial structure. These foundations officially guarantee the Russian peoples and regions comprehensive socio-cultural, educational, scientific and technological development. The purpose of the work is a comprehensive analysis of the miscalculations of the activities of the Russian state in the educational sphere in the post-Soviet period, which led to problems that do not allow regional universities today to solve the functions assigned to them by society, as well as the search for ways to solve them. The process of implementing this goal defined the following tasks: to analyze the degree of compliance of the post-Soviet policy of the Russian state in the educational sphere with the proclaimed political and legal foundations of the state structure of the Russian Federation, guarantees of the socio-cultural development of Russian peoples; to identify the relationship of the results of modern reforms in the higher education system with the objective functions of regional universities of the Russian Federation; to unleash the positive potential of regional universities in solving the socio-economic, sociocultural problems of the regions and peoples of the Russian Federation, preserving and strengthening its Eurasian civilizational essence; investigate the negative consequences of post-Soviet reforms on the state of affairs in regional universities, outline ways to solve emerging problems; show the importance of taking into account the ethnocultural component in the education system of the multinational Russian Federation, which determines the personal and professional qualities of younger generations, which contributes to the achievement of interethnic harmony and stability in Russian society.
doi: 10.53598 / 2410-3691-2021-3-284-98-109
THE ACTIVITIES OF THE INTERNAL AFFAIRS DIRECTORATE IN EMERGENCIES AS A FACTOR IN THE FORMATION OF PUBLIC OPINION ABOUT THE POLICE
The paper examines the principles of the formation and transformation of public opinion about the police in the civilian environment, associated with the participation of law enforcement officers in measures aimed at preventing the negative consequences of emergencies. The publication considers the risks associated with the incorrect interpretation of the official actions of law enforcement officials by representatives of the civilian sphere in the context of limiting their capabilities in order to minimize damage from an emergency. The author evaluates the prospects related to improving the social perception of the police through highlighting the disregard of self and high personal qualities of police officers at risk to life and health of those involved in combating the consequences of an emergency and rescuing the civilian population. It is concluded that the media should be used as an instrument for the formation of public opinion in order to objectively reflect the professional activities of law enforcement officials in the public consciousness of Russians.
doi: 10.53598 / 2410-3691-2021-3-284-122-128
Cheremisin V.V., Tomilin V.F.
URBAN CONSCIOUSNESS, CULTURE, QUALITY OF LIFE AND TAMBOV RESIDENTS’ IDEA OF FAVORABLE URBAN ENVIRONMENT
The paper presents the results of field sociological research on the problems of assessing urban planning problems and urban environment in Tambov in 2008 and 2020. The research shows that the quantitative composition of Tambov inhabitants in the last 30 years remains stable, but the housing stock during this time increased from 14.1 m2 to 29.6 m2 per inhabitant. Tambov is ranked 36th out of 75 cities in Russia in terms of quality of life according to the opinions of Tambov residents.
The relevance of the publication is due to the scientific interest in the sphere of interaction of citizens with the environment and comfortable urban environment formation. The purpose of the paper is to analyze the subjective opinion of residents about urban planning problems and the conditions of optimal living environment formation. Based on the results of the polls the main negative factors of the urban environment were identified, in particular, poor ecology, lack of landscaping. Preferred and undesirable areas of the city for living have been named. Based on the respondents' answers, a “social order” was formed to optimize the urban environment and solve urban planning problems. The authors suggest that involving the citizens in solving urban problems increases their social responsibility for creating a comfortable living environment.
The empirical research allows us to think that in order to create a favorable urban environment, urban planning consciousness and culture with a human dimension must appear among townspeople. In this article according to sociological surveys, we have broadly subjectively revealed and assessed the quality of life of respondents in the non-production fixed assets of social consumption in Tambov.
doi: 10.53598 / 2410-3691-2021-3-284-129-138
TRADITIONAL METHODS OF PRODUCING NATURAL DYES AND WOOL DYEING AMONG THE INGUSH IN THE 19TH - EARLY 20TH CENTURIES
The paper discusses traditional methods for the production of natural dyes, the features of the technology of correct dyeing. The anthropology of color in the culture of the Ingush was based on a two-level basis: on the one hand, it was associated with the natural environmental conditions, and on the other hand, it was formed under the influence of historical practice and life. The technological costs that arise in the production of natural dyes at home are considered. The research shows that by the beginning of the twentieth century in the North Caucasus there is a gradual transition from the use of natural dyes to cheaper and less laborious factory analogues. The author presents a systematized list of local dyeing plants and trees, provides information on the dyeing properties of minerals and the technology of their use in the handicraft production of the Ingush in the 19th - 20th centuries in the process of dyeing wool. Based on the analysis, the author concludes that in modern conditions there is a loss of traditional experience in the production of natural dyes and wool dyeing among the Ingush.
doi: 10.53598 / 2410-3691-2021-3-284-139-148
Akoeva N.B., Chen Lilong
DIGITIZATION OF THE HAKKA ANCESTOR WORSHIP CEREMONY
The Hakka World Ancestor Ceremony is one of the most influential ancestor worship ceremonies in China. In 2011, this event was included in the National List of Intangible Cultural Heritage. Due to the fusion and coexistence of several interaction models in the "ancestor worship ceremony" and an accurate understanding of the intentions of multimodal interaction, the representation of multi-channel perception (visual, sound and sensory) is synchronized. Based on Node.js and Three.js technologies, the authors implemented a digital system for the "ancestor worship ceremony".
The digital model represents actions in two halls: Huaizu, where you can express your feelings of memory and pray for your families, and Yuping, where you can perform interactive operations, such as offering candles, offering incense, etc.
Tests show that the system achieves a balance between performance and user-friendliness, which provides a real solution for digitizing intangible cultural heritage of the "ritual" type.
The digital content of the ceremony is not limited in time and space, does not require the use of third-party plug-ins and has rapid availability, which can contribute to the rapid spread and development of the "Ceremony of the Ancestors of the Hakka World".
doi: 10.53598 / 2410-3691-2021-3-284-149-156
Lyausheva S.A., Nekhay V.N.
Review of the monograph by V.Kh. Akaev "Sufism in the Context of Arab-Muslim Culture. Monograph. Grozny: State Unitary Enterprise "Book Publishing House", 2020. 523 pp."
The monographic study of V.Kh. Akaev is an independent author's research on the problems of genesis and the evolution of Sufism in the global and regional dimension. Having formed in the bosom of Arab-Muslim culture, Sufism as a religious-mystical phenomenon penetrated the spiritual space of the peoples of the North Caucasus. Its distinctive feature in the region under consideration was that Sufi fraternities managed to integrate into the structure of traditional ethnosocial institutions of a number of North Caucasian peoples. However, the deformation of the socio-political life of the North Caucasus in the early 1990s led to the activation of the activities of radicalists and extremists in Chechnya and Dagestan. The peer-reviewed monograph makes sense of the destructive potential of religious radicalism, which was actively promoted by Wahhabism ideologists who operated on the concepts of Shahidism. Fundamental differences between Wahhabism and Sufism in the interpretation of the theological doctrine of Islam were determined. The author's description of the socio-political portrait of asocial actors of radicalism deserves special attention. The research shows that the most effective tool for preventing religious radicalism is the dialogue of cultures aimed at mitigating cultural conflicts and ensuring their active exchange while preserving cultural and historical identity.
doi: 10.53598 / 2410-3691-2021-3-284-157-161