The Bulletin of the Adyghe State University,<br />
the series “Region Studies: Philosophy, History, Sociology, Jurisprudence, Political Sciences and Culturology” The Bulletin of the Adyghe State University,
the series “Region Studies: Philosophy, History, Sociology, Jurisprudence, Political Sciences and Culturology”
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#2 / 2021


  • Bagdasaryan S.D., Samsonenko T.A.
    State policy of Russia in the field of historical and cultural heritage preservation in the practice of historical and cultural tourism

    The relevance of the study of the state policy of the Russian Federation in the field of historical and cultural heritage preservation in the historical aspect is associated with the trend of development of the direction of historical and cultural tourism. Historical and cultural heritage has become an indicator of the state policy of the countries of the world, taking a worthy place in interethnic relations, acting as an instrument of political, cultural and economic dialogue, in fact, playing a significant role in modern geopolitics. Today, public investment in the tourism industry encourages cultural programs, the preservation of ethnic museums, theaters, music venues, and the development of natural and historical parks and cultural landscapes. Historical and cultural tourism performs the task of familiarizing with the history of the country, the region, the sights of a historical place rich in material and cultural heritage, expands the possibilities of preserving and broadcasting the culture of peoples. This contributes to the regional development and attractiveness of the territory. The purpose of the study is to consider the state policy of Russia as a universal tool for creating the historical and cultural image of the territory in international and national tourism, to increase the level of professional training of personnel providing this direction. The methodological basis of the research is consisted of a group of methods that are subdivided into general scientific and special. The general scientific basis for the analysis of facts, phenomena, and the allocation of industry institutions was made up of general methods of formal logic and related private scientific methods. The main method is the method of historical analysis of tourism as a branch of social life. The system-structural approach is used for the theoretical understanding of the types of tourism. Comparative-historical, to track the development of the tourism industry in the region in a historical perspective. The legal basis of the public institution is traced based on the method of interpretation of the norms of law, etc. The objectives of the study are to make an analysis of the theoretical position on historical and cultural tourism and the historical analysis of the role of state institutions in the development of the territory.

    doi: doi: 10.53598 / 2410-3691-2021-2-279-15-26

    pdf 15-26.pdf  (157 Kb)

  • Burykina L.V., Fedoseeva L.D.
    On the impact of local natural and climatic conditions of the North-West Caucasus on the vital activities of the population in the context of the observations of I.N. Klingen

    The paper undertakes an attempt to analyze information about the climate of the North-West Caucasus basing on a monograph by I.N. Klingen. This monograph was based on the materials of the Commission of I.S. Khatisov-A.D. Rotinyants and other researchers of the Black Sea region. It contains competent and valuable information on the history of agriculture of the Shapsugs and Ubykhs. Despite favorable natural and climatic conditions, this territory is very specific. In this natural habitat, the Adyghe tribes developed original techniques of agricultural machinery and special tools that allowed them to cultivate land both on the slopes of the mountains and in the lowlands, and take significant crops. The Adyghe tribes developed their own forms of adaptation to the habitat, presented original ways of living in difficult climatic conditions, which made it possible to maintain a regional model of stable socio-economic development with its ethnocultural specificity. The problem of the impact of local natural and climatic conditions on anthropogenic activity and its reflection on the process of forming the tradition of nature management, the agricultural experience of the Adyghe tribes, set out in the report of I.S. Khatisov and the monograph by I.N. Klingen, have not lost their relevance in modern conditions. Rural mudflows, water erosion with destructive consequences have become a real scourge for farms, resorts and simple citizens. The culture of agriculture of the Adyghes living in the Black Sea region was and remains the most reasonable for this territory and has not only scientific and cognitive, but also practical significance.

    doi: doi: 10.53598 / 2410-3691-2021-2-279-27-35

    pdf 27-35.pdf  (131 Kb)

  • Ivashchenko A.S.
    Russian policy towards the Georgian-Abkhaz conflict (1991 - 2008)

    The disintegration of a large population and territory, multi-ethnic and multi-confessional state, as the Soviet Union was, could not initially go painlessly and without loss. The national political elites of the former Soviet Union republics, in general, thanks to endurance and political foresight, managed to avoid a "bloody divorce" like the "Yugoslav scenario". However, it was not possible to completely prevent a severe conflict of interest, which, unfortunately, grew into military clashes in the post-Soviet space. In the second decade of the 21st century, Donbass was added to Nagorno-Karabakh, Transnistria, Abkhazia, South Ossetia, which became "points of tension" in the territory of the former Soviet Union back in the 1990s. The paper attempts to analyze the motives and content of Russia's political and diplomatic actions in relation to the development of the Georgian-Abkhaz conflict in the post-Soviet period, and their consequences for Georgia and Abkhazia. The author reveals the vicissitudes of internal political struggle in the Russian political elite in the 1990s when developing Moscow's policy towards the Georgian-Abkhaz conflict. The publication raises the urgent problem of the compatibility of the principle of the territorial integrity of a multi-ethnic State with the principle of the right of peoples to self-determination, up to and including full secession. By supporting Abkhazia in the conflict with Georgia, Moscow strengthened its authority among the North Caucasus peoples, but at the cost of losing good-neighborly relations with Georgia.

    doi: doi: 10.53598 / 2410-3691-2021-2-279-36-42

    pdf 36-42.pdf  (113 Kb)

  • Karabasheva D.A.
    The formation of a system of Cossack and mountain forest services in the territory of modern Karachay-Cherkessia in the pre-revolutionary period

    The article highlights one of the important aspects of economic history related to the forestry industry in the territory of the modern Karachay-Cherkess Republic. The predatory exploitation of the region's forest wealth in the second half of the 19th century on the part of the local mountain and Cossack population determined state and public intervention in this area. Its main goal was not only the desire to prevent an environmental disaster and streamline the use of forests, but also to take into account the needs of the population, to preserve the profitability of forestry. The author focuses on aspects related to the emergence of a system of military and public forest services during the imperial period. The paper deals with the issues related to the financial activities of these structures, the dynamics of their expenses and income, the staff of forest services, attention is focused on the problems of personnel composition and the existence of corruption schemes. This work for the first time highlights the emergence of environmental protection structures in the upland part of the Upper Kuban, their legal types, the complex of their functions (administrative, protective, supervisory, technical, economical etc.), the normative basis, content and range of their activities. The author notes the main problems of the industry, the nature and dynamics of the development of forest resources in the region, the effectiveness of the forest protection service.

    doi: doi: 10.53598 / 2410-3691-2021-2-279-43-52

    pdf 43-52.pdf  (164 Kb)


  • Zenin K.A.
    A system approach to the study of the city in the social understanding of its phenomenon for modern society

    Understanding of the phenomenon of urban space provides a justification for its heuristicity. Modern social science studies the phenomenon of urban space not alone, but being in close relationship with other sciences, such as sociology, psychology, logistics, political science, geography, cultural studies, practical sections of architecture, etc. The listed sciences study the city from the practical and empirical side, but theoretical study takes place through the established methods of philosophical science. The application of sociological methodology in the study of the urban locus significantly expands the possibilities of socio-humanities in determining the interdependence of spatial and population factors for the development of the urban environment (T. Parsons, N. Luhmann). Based on the generalization of the system-semiotic method of A.I. Uyomov, the city is considered through the triad "thing," "property," "relation". Antithesis in the understanding of the city is the concept of A.E. Gutnov, explaining its essential characteristics by recreating spatial parametrics. It is concluded that the existing theoretical and methodological approaches to the study of urban space have significant heuristic potential in the explication of the city as a holistic (integral) socio-cultural phenomenon.

    doi: doi: 10.53598 / 2410-3691-2021-2-279-53-58

    pdf 53-58.pdf  (109 Kb)

  • Kolevaiko Yu.A.
    Internet as a form of culture translation in the society of the 21st century

    The progress of information, computer and telecommunication technologies has led to the formation of a special virtual sociotechnical environment - the global Internet, which every year strengthens its leading position in the media system. This situation has a direct impact on the system of spiritual culture, since one of the key elements of socio-cultural reality is the translation of its content into wide sections of society, primarily those that are in the stage of socialization and inculturation. However, a serious gnoseological problem for modern sociology is the potential of the Internet as an instrument of cultural communication, since the Internet, due to a number of functional characteristics, turns out to be a suboptimal form of cultural translation. In this regard, the paper defines the parameters of the influence of the global information and communication system on the processes of socialization and inculturation in modern society, which, under the influence of virtual practices, are significantly deformed and are more spontaneous. It is concluded that there is an ambivalent impact of the Internet on the communication space, which creates risks for the reproduction of the socio-cultural system of Russian society.

    doi: doi: 10.53598 / 2410-3691-2021-2-279-59-65

    pdf 59-65.pdf  (114 Kb)

  • Meretukova O.G., Nesterova S.V., Kharin V.V., Streltsov O.V., Matorina O.S.
    Analysis of information and psychological impact on personality in COVID-19 pandemic conditions

    This paper analyzes theoretical aspects of information-psychological influence on personality. The main areas of information and psychological impact include economic, political, military, etc. The implementation of the process of information and psychological impact is aimed at the main spheres of life of an individual or social group through the media, social networks, global computer networks, rumors (fake news), etc. The most important task of effective counteraction is the timely identification of information and psychological influence, as well as an accurate assessment of possible destructive consequences that can lead to information and psychological intervention. In this regard, the current task is to study the issues discussed in the paper. At present, as the flow of information from various sources increases, the development of information prevention measures becomes relevant. At present, as the flow of information from various sources increases, the development of measures to prevent information and psychological effects and negative consequences in the form of changing the needs of the individual (groups of people) through manipulative actions of manufacturers and suppliers of goods and services becomes relevant. The authors of the publication studied the implementation of the process of managing social systems in the information society, presented by Russian and foreign authors. Basic concepts, classifications of methods of information-psychological impact are given, methods having the highest impact on people with critical and non-critical perception of information are identified and delineated. The most important characteristics of a person's thought activity are independence, criticality of thinking, depth and flexibility of thinking, analysis and search for solutions to problems. Literary overview and main conclusions of researchers on essence and content of the process of information-psychological impact are presented. An analysis of the information and psychological impact on the person (groups of persons) during the pandemic was carried out.

    doi: doi: 10.53598 / 2410-3691-2021-2-279-66-78

    pdf 66-78.pdf  (362 Kb)

  • Mogilevich B.R.
    Uncertainty and risk phenomena in the context of intercultural communication

    Risk and uncertainty are ontologically linked with the life cycle of people, and therefore these problems are always relevant, especially in the contemporary postmodern society. The informational postindustrial society is characterized by a large amount of diverse information that is easily accessible to all members of society. On the one hand, access to information and its amount is a real value, on the other hand, people cannot adequately select, interpret and evaluate new information. The uncertainty arising in this case disorients people, disrupting the stability of their socio-cultural communicative ties. Uncertainty is ambivalent in nature - it is subjective as a projection of personal perception of social reality; it is objective as an actualization of the breakdown/change of social meanings and institutions. The study on the nature of uncertainty and risks is unanimous in the fact that the high level of uncertainty of our time is due to such factors as globalization, informatization and digitalization. “Fluid modernity” as a social reality characterizes everyday life of people from the perspective of the main concepts of life: freedom, individuality, time and space, work and communities. The concept of risks as products of uncertainty ranges from comparing risks with the Chernobyl accident to assessing risks as mobilizing forces. Socio-cultural risks, intercultural in particular, acquire special significance in the postmodern era. The identified 6 universal categories of culture define intercultural interaction from the perspective of taking into account cultural characteristics that determine the success of intercultural interaction. Uncertainty reduction theory offers ways to establish successful intercultural communication. The identified strategies for reducing uncertainty (passive, active and interactive) and the factors of its success are determined by the level of intercultural competence of the communicants. In addition, adherence to the principles of Cooperation and Politeness helps to reduce intercultural uncertainty and risks as types of communicative discomfort.

    doi: doi: 10.53598 / 2410-3691-2021-2-279-79-88

    pdf 79-88.pdf  (138 Kb)

  • Notman O.V.
    Index method for assessing the quality of the urban environment: international and Russian experience

    In modern conditions of high urbanization, the quality of the urban environment as an integral component of the quality of life of the population is one of the priority areas of state policy, reflected in national projects of Russia. The purpose of the paper is a critical analysis of foreign and domestic methods for assessing the quality of the urban environment, based on an index approach. The publication considers the methodological experience of major research and consulting organizations conducting comparative studies of cities on a regular basis using composite indices. The main directions of assessment of the quality of the urban environment, covering economic, social, cultural, environmental, political and legal, are identified. The author shows the advantages of composite indexes as universal tools for aggregating a large array of data in order to carry out an integrated assessment of the quality of the urban environment. It is concluded that existing assessment systems focus on the measurement of "average urban temperature," preferring the use of available statistics that allow for a one-time mass coverage of cities for comparative analysis. Based on the analysis, a promising scientific and methodological task is formulated, namely: the development of composite indices that allow assessing the intracity territorial imbalances of the life environment. The implementation of this task is of high practical importance for the management of the development of super-large cities (megacities), including the development of differentiated programs for improving the urban environment at the level of inner-city territories - districts, microdistricts.

    doi: doi: 10.53598 / 2410-3691-2021-2-279-89-99

    pdf 89-99.pdf  (297 Kb)

  • Savelenko V.M., Popova T.V., Ishunin V.A.
    The city as an environment for the realization of power relations: an interdisciplinary object of study

    The paper considers the main concepts of studying the city in various fields of scientific knowledge, analyzes the approaches and interaction of sciences in the general knowledge of urban space. Each science interprets the understanding of the city in its own way and considers its elements from the point of view of its competence. The use of methodological tools of philosophy as an integral system of scientific knowledge allows us to analyze the obtained data and lead them to a single model of substantiation of specific features of the city, which is a unique phenomenon of human life. However, each science, relying only on its own empirical material, makes a mistake: it creates an ideal image that does not always correspond to the real picture. Each researcher focuses on specific elements of study, thereby giving them priority in understanding the urban environment. This fact actualizes the method of interdisciplinary study of the urban phenomenon. In the context of sociohumanitary studies based on the methods of sociology, demography, political science and cultural studies, the city is considered as an environment for the exercise of power, in which the dependence of sociodynamic processes on the nature of institutional restrictions imposed by power structures on the population increases.

    doi: doi: 10.53598 / 2410-3691-2021-2-279-100-105

    pdf 100-105.pdf  (119 Kb)

  • Tliy A.A.
    Mass consumer culture in the information society of the 21st century

    Mass culture since its inception has existed for a century. An analysis of a number of theoretical works on the problem of mass culture is given. The development of information and computer technologies and the Internet, the emergence of the phenomenon of virtual reality has influenced the forms, methods, and channels for spreading mass culture, posing a number of epistemological problems before sociological science that need to be solved. The paper emphasizes the differences between the industrial society and the information society, in the context of which mass culture appears. The function of mass culture, such as sociocultural global integration, is analyzed. It is noted that mass culture gradually began to acquire the properties of media culture, embedded in the space of information, computer and telecommunication technologies. At the same time, the spread of mass culture has led to a deformation of public consciousness, strengthening of unification processes, primitivization of cultural values and an increase in consumer appetites of the population. Simultaneously, as socio-historical practice showed, many alarmist assessments were exaggerated. In this connection, it is concluded that at the beginning of the 21st century, a constructive understanding of the functionality of mass-cultural processes in changing the spiritual life of mankind prevailed in the public and scientific community.

    doi: doi: 10.53598 / 2410-3691-2021-2-279-106-112

    pdf 106-112.pdf  (114 Kb)

  • Tuova T.G., Nekhay V.N., Khachetsukov Z.M.
    Challenges to environmental security in the context of the social development of the Adyghea Republic

    The paper discusses the main directions of social development of the Adyghea Republic in the context of increasing challenges to environmental safety. The structure of environmental safety of the region is formed by a system of effective environmental management, mechanisms for preserving the biological and natural diversity of the territory and environmental tools for maintaining public health. The authors confirm the thesis that environmental safety is one of the main indicators of effective management of the subject of the Russian Federation. The need to take into account modern environmental standards in the development and selection of a model of socio-economic development of the region is justified. The publication analyzes measures of state policy in the field of transport infrastructure development aimed at reducing the destructive impact of environmental challenges on the quality of life of the population in the republic. Based on the generalization of the results of sociological studies conducted in the region from 2008 to 2021 by state authorities and the author's research team, the attitude of the population to the environmental situation in the Adyghea Republic is evaluated. It is inferred that it is advisable to develop integrated socio-economic development taking into account the specifics of the natural and biological landscape of the region and improve ecological culture as an instrument to ensure environmental safety and a high level of quality of life for the population.

    doi: doi: 10.53598 / 2410-3691-2021-2-279-113-121

    pdf 113-121.pdf  (183 Kb)

  • Shakhbanova M.M. , Gimbatova M.B.
    Religious component in the marital sphere: ethnosociological research

    Researchers describe changes taking place in the institute of the family as crisis, and the observed destructive processes as contradictory. The object of this study is the marital sphere of the peoples of Dagestan. The subject of the study is the interreligious marriage union and the marriage behavior of the Dagestan peoples. The chronological framework of the study covers the 19th - early 21st centuries and this historical period will allow us to trace the evolution of attitudes towards interreligious marriages, from their complete rejection to tolerant attitude towards them. The methodological basis of ethnosociological research is the principle of historical reconstruction, historical, comparative and historical-typological methods, and the Bogardus social distance scale, which shows the attitudes existing in the mass consciousness of the urban population of the republic in various areas of social interaction. The obtained results of the study indicate that in traditional Dagestan society, the attitude towards interreligious marriages, due to the high Islamization of society, was negative. With the accession of Dagestan to Russia, the conclusion of interreligious marriages becomes possible provided one of the spouses accepts Islam, subject to sharia marriage norms and rites. With an increase in the share of the Russian population in Dagestan from the second half of the twentieth century, the attitude to interreligious marriages has changed, sharia norms in marriage, in connection with the Sovietization of Dagestan society, have not always been respected. The study shows that the urban population surveyed is focused on interaction in various social spheres, with the exception of marital, because for respondents the religion of the future spouse is the key parameter when joining a marriage union. However, empirical data show that in the mass consciousness of citizens there is a tolerant attitude towards the interreligious marriage of their children, in comparison with their own marital attitudes. The study has revealed significant differences in the type of religiosity: the most conservative subgroup is self-identifying as "staunchly believers," and "believers", although the percentages are noticeably lower, compared with the sub-masses of fluctuating, unbelieving and staunchly unbelievers.

    doi: doi: 10.53598 / 2410-3691-2021-2-279-122-133

    pdf 122-133.pdf  (328 Kb)


  • Nagoeva L.A.
    Western Caucasus written artifacts and the Danube script

    This paper deals with the Western Caucasus written artifacts: the problematic aspect of their study, the main trends of previous studies, the hypothesis of the relationship of these artifacts with the oldest writing systems of cultures of Eastern Europe and the Middle East. The study of these cultural elements in the light of new archaeological data leads to the conclusion that they can be considered as fragments of the Neolithic sign system, in particular their commonality with the so-called Danube script. Along with the civilizational leap which occurred in the Neolithic (land husbandry and agriculture, large settlements and a new social structure that changed significantly the nature of socio-economic relations), a rethinking of the methods of transmitting and fixing information took place. Thus, the foundation for the emergence of writing systems that spread through cultural expansion and migration to large territories, including the Western Caucasus, was formed. The author also notes that the graphic basis of Caucasus monuments goes beyond the Caucasus-Mesopotamian-Anatolian range, as confirmed by the so-called Vinca script. It is inferred that the glyph foundation formed in the Danube Eneolithic contributed to the formation of the first civilizations in the region under study.

    doi: doi: 10.53598 / 2410-3691-2021-2-279-134-142

    pdf 134-142.pdf  (222 Kb)

  • Sigida D.A., Gerbut E.A.
    Romantic arts in modern mass culture

    The paper discusses some types of romantic art, their connection with the external and internal properties of the person, and the principle of subjectivity. According to Hegel, in classical art there is a perfect fusion of ideal content and sensual form. But the spirit is not just a single finite spirit connected to a single body; it is divine and infinite. Also, in romantic art, which is Christian in all its goals and aspirations, no sensual embodiment is felt adequate to spiritual content. The first art in the range of romantic arts is defined, which should, in this way, make visible its content in the forms of external human appearance and all natural creations, but without lingering on sensuality and abstraction. The fulfillment of this task is set by painting. The publication defines the place of mass art in modern culture, where the creative personality, as the creator and consumer of this art, translates new art, which should withstand the new reality of the 21st century. The stage of changing styles introduces its rules and wishes into art, as well as requires obeying new laws in the artistic life of modern society.

    doi: doi: 10.53598 / 2410-3691-2021-2-279-143-146

    pdf 143-146.pdf  (106 Kb)

  • Semina G.V.
    Karachay-Balkarian kiyiz as an object of the world of "things"

    In the paper, the author proceeds from the understanding of the phenomenon of culture (both in art and in philosophy), as a culture capable of living and developing only in a simultaneous dialogue with other cultures, which V.S. Bibler called "a cultural paradox". In the process of the study, the understanding is built that culture is a world of "things", basing on the dialogue of their creators not only with the people of the present, but also with subsequent generations. They tell descendants about the worldview of the past era, about the values of ancestral culture, about the worldview of the creators of works. The author considers this aspect important and significant enough to solve the problems of further preserving the cultural heritage of the peoples of the North Caucasus in a globalizing world, striving for universal unification and thereby leveling the identity of ethnic cultures. Cultural-philosophical analysis of objects as "things" helps to identify their meanings, bearing the stamp of a human being, as a homo faber, as a contemplator and as a user, to whom not only their purpose is open, but also without which, in principle, their existence is impossible. The patterned Karachay-Balkarian rugs – kiyizes – are considered as an example. A comparative parallel was drawn between possible interpretations of the ornamental motifs of the zhyigych kiyizes –narrow strips covering shelves in the patriarchal dwellings of these ethnic groups, and the alleged dialogue with the Other. The material gives reason to conclude that these curtain rugs are "read" according to the type of "cultural text" which is a kind of coded message from the ancestors.

    doi: doi: 10.53598 / 2410-3691-2021-2-279-147-155

    pdf 147-155.pdf  (316 Kb)

  • Yurkova E.M.
    The current state of virtualization of sociocultural activity

    In view of the rapid development of computer technologies and the introduction of information tools into the everyday and working life of the individual, we see the process of virtualization not only of culture, but also of sociocultural activity. The paper discusses the virtualization of sociocultural activity in modern conditions. The purpose of the study is to identify trends in the virtualization of sociocultural activity. The object is sociocultural activity. The subject is the current state of virtualization of sociocultural activity. Research objectives are: to indicate the relevance of the topic; to study scientific literature on the issue of negative trends in virtualization of sociocultural activity; to determine the essence of the terms "virtualization" and "virtual reality", "culture virtualization", "virtualization of sociocultural activity"; to list the most relevant virtual activity technologies; and to identify negative trends in virtualization of sociocultural activity. This process, according to the author, is a consequence of global informatization, including the sociocultural sphere. According to the author, the current state of virtualization of sociocultural activity has both positive and negative aspects. As positive aspects, the author includes the possibility of using unlimited space for creativity and self-realization, as well as the development of a wide range of training programs provided - master classes, marathons, courses, etc.; maintaining interpersonal communication using modern instant messengers and applications and simplifying communication of work processes. The work also cites the negative aspects of the process of virtualization of sociocultural activity, such as hedonism, depersonalization and standardization of the person, excessive freedom of action. In conclusion, the author notes that the importance of negative trends is increasing and the process of virtualization of sociocultural activity can be controlled, namely, the translation of high-quality censorship content, limiting destructive actions, and blocking violators.

    doi: doi: 10.53598 / 2410-3691-2021-2-279-156-162

    pdf 156-162.pdf  (126 Kb)