The Bulletin of the Adyghe State University,<br />
the series “Region Studies: Philosophy, History, Sociology, Jurisprudence, Political Sciences and Culturology” The Bulletin of the Adyghe State University,
the series “Region Studies: Philosophy, History, Sociology, Jurisprudence, Political Sciences and Culturology”
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#1 / 2021


  • Batchaeva A.M.
    Economic situation of the Upper Kuban mountain population during the Civil War (March 1918 - March 1920)

    The article is devoted to the analysis of the causes and consequences of crisis events in the economic situation of the population of the Upper Kuban mountain districts (on the territory of modern Karachay-Cherkessia) during the active phase of the Civil War (March 1918 - March 1920). The article considers the main economic measures in the region, carried out both by local Soviet authorities (March - September 1918) and by the White administration (September 1918 - March 1920) during the period when this territory was under their military-political control. The activities of regional authorities during this period were due to the military confrontation and were completely subjected to the situation at the front. In general, this period was marked by catastrophic consequences for agriculture, which was the basis of the economy of the mountain districts, and led to an increase in social tension in them. It seems that it was the neglect of the authorities, regardless of the regime, of the interests of the Muslim population that contributed to the indifferent attitude of the inhabitants of Karachay and Cherkessia towards the warring parties, which, to a large extent, explains the ease of repeated change of power in the region during the Civil War.

    pdf 15-24.pdf  (227 Kb)

  • Korotko T.V.
    Health system of Turkey (1920s - mid-1970s)

    The article analyzes the health system of Turkey of the 20th century. The history of the formation of the health system of Turkey dates back to the era of the Ottoman Empire, when the laws on medical care dealt exclusively with the provision of emergency care during the war. These responsibilities were assigned to the Department of Health within the Ministry of the Interior. The Ministry of Health was created in May 1920, and legislative acts on the organization of medical services were adopted in the first years of the existence of the Republic of Turkey. In Turkey, over the years of the republic, significant work has been done to create and strengthen a network of medical institutions, train medical personnel, and establish sanitary and epidemiological supervision. The State plays an important role in this sector of social life [1; 89]. The first Minister of Health was Dr. Refik Saidam, who did a lot to create a health system, and the prerequisites for training medical personnel by introducing free accommodation and scholarships. During this period, the first model hospitals were built, and institutions were created whose goal was to combat such common diseases as malaria, tuberculosis and syphilis.

    pdf 25-31.pdf  (164 Kb)

  • Melsitov V.V., Sergienko N.L., Yakovleva I.P.
    The international situation and the main trends in the foreign policy of the USSR on the eve of World War II

    In the article, the authors turn to events related to the eve and the first days of the 1941-1945 Great Patriotic War. The policy, which was carried out primarily by England and France, called “the appeasement", caused the Munich conspiracy, opened the way for A. Hitler to launch World War II. The authors show the destructive influence of “the appeasement" pursued by the leaders E. Daladier and N. Chamberlain on the loss of political subjectness of a number of Eastern European countries and the further escalation of international political tension in Europe. The process of ideological confrontation between fascist Germany and the Soviet Union and Western countries was initiated by concluding an "Agreement against the Communist International" (Anti-Comintern Pact), as a result of which the Berlin-Rome-Tokyo axis was created. The authors prove that in this most difficult international situation, only the Soviet Union has set a course towards creating a system of collective security and repelling the aggressor. The authors also turn their attention to the role and significance for world history of the Molotov-Ribbentrop Pact, which was signed on August 24, 1939 in Moscow by the heads of the foreign ministries of Germany and the Soviet Union.

    pdf 32-36.pdf  (142 Kb)

  • Pocheshkhov N.A., Shkhachemukov R.M.
    The problem of victims of fascist terror among civilians during the Great Patriotic War: a case of Krasnodar Territory

    The article discusses the debating problems of the Great Patriotic War, in particular, issues related to the determination of the number of victims of fascism among the civilian population, as well as a historical assessment of the atrocities of the Nazi invaders. The Extraordinary State Commission (ESC) created in 1942 to establish and investigate the atrocities of Nazi invaders made a significant contribution to the study of the scale and volume of human losses suffered by the Soviet Union during the German occupation. The duties of the ESC included the examination of burials, the collection and registration of testimonies of witnesses and released prisoners of prisons and concentration camps, the interrogation of military personnel, and the documentation of crimes committed by Nazi invaders. The authors analyze the scale and nature of the crimes of the III Reich’s military personnel committed in the Kuban Territory through the organization and conduct of punitive operations and mass executions in a number of municipalities of the Krasnodar Territory and Adyghea, as well as the efforts of the regional branch of the ESC to investigate them. The authors conclude that the development of a unified toolkit for determining the victims of war will increase the validity of data on human losses.

    pdf 37-41.pdf  (136 Kb)

  • Khuako Z.Yu., Zhade Z.A.
    Newspaper as a form of social communication and management in the sociohistoric and sociocultural space

    Studies on the theory of information and mass communication, as well as the sociology of journalism hardly touch on the problems of the functioning of the newspaper as a form of "social communication and management," as a "social fact of the literary order," and "literary phenomenon" in the sociohistoric and sociocultural space. In newspaper literature, significant aspects related to the social and other features of newspaper communication remain little studied. The relevance of the topic lies also in the fact that the institution of the media and communication is the most important structural element of the political system of society. The well-known politicians, political leaders, political scientists, sociologists, etc., as a rule, listen to the opinion, estimates, approaches, conclusions of popular print publications, which are the basis, the "elite" of newspaper periodicals. The activities of the newspaper as a form of social communication and management in the sociohistorical and sociocultural space always focused on strengthening political education, political socialization of the population, and awareness of their interests in the field of public power. The mass press and later television "were the first to signal to society about social and political conflicts", turning into effective "intermediaries in the relations of the population with the authorities", and playing a significant role "in the system of social representation of citizens".

    pdf 42-55.pdf  (262 Kb)


  • Ashkhamakhov K.I., Kozlov R.S., Nekhay V.N.
    Methodology for the theoretical reconstruction of social phenomena in the context of the transformation of the research space of sociology

    At the beginning of the 21st century, social institutions are in the process of permanent transformation, which actualizes the need to develop new approaches for their research. This article attempts to theorize and formalize sociological knowledge. Existing and competing principles of sociology are private empirical generalizations of diverse factual material and do not provide a clear picture of the emergence and dynamics of social phenomena and processes. By their resolution, they do not fully reflect social reality as such. The goal of this work was to create an alternative, abstract consistent theoretical model, which can become a reliable prototype of any social institution of the phenomenon and process. Based on this, the use of such means and methods of science that can reveal its generalized and formal nature is indeed relevant. These are the mathematical theory of representations and the philosophical principle of symmetry, the particular manifestation of which is its calibration variety. Their use in this study made it possible to obtain an auto-isomorphic prototype of a social phenomenon. From the theoretical study conducted in this work, we can conclude the following: the obtained abstract model of the social mechanism has the ability to penetrate the realms of reality that lie outside the sensual empirical perception of social processes taking place in society. This makes it possible to reach the level of obtaining a generalized nature and laws of the state and dynamics of social processes taking place in society.

    pdf 56-67.pdf  (558 Kb)

  • Kobleva Z.Kh.
    Sociocultural values of the Adyghe family in the context of modern transformations

    The article analyzes the institutional and value-normative nature of the family in the conditions of modern society. The author provides the interpretation of the family, the functioning of which takes place based on social ties. Particular attention is paid to the characterization of the family as a system of stable ties between individuals, based on interpersonal communication, which contributes to the preservation of the institution of family and marriage. The relevance of the article is due to the emergence at the present stage of serious scientific interest in the problems of transforming family values. The purpose of this article is to study and consider the characteristics of the family as a sociocultural value. In accordance with a certain goal, the following tasks were set and solved: - Study the concept, forms and basic characteristics of family values; - Identify the specifics of the interaction of individuals in the family; - Show the influence of family values on the moral attitudes in society. The practical significance of the article lies in the use of provisions and conclusions in the process of communication between representatives of different social groups and cultures. The methodological basis of the article is a systemic approach, as well as comparison and observation methods.

    pdf 68-72.pdf  (143 Kb)

  • Namrueva E.V.
    Technologies of internal affairs bodies’ interaction with mass media

    The article analyzes various groups of technologies used in the practical activities of the press services of the internal affairs bodies in the field of media communication (interaction with the media). Based on the classification of modern communication technologies, the basic tools for use in the PR activities of law enforcement agencies are determined, making it possible to build interaction with various public structures. The basis of the full and qualitative representation of the law enforcement agency in the information and telecommunications space is the legally approved principles of police activity - openness and publicity. In this regard, one of the most important areas in the activities of the internal affairs bodies is public relations, primarily with the editors of traditional and newest media using various technologies. The work of the police, which satisfies the fundamental security needs of every citizen and society as a whole, is always the focus of the attention of journalists and the public. Thus, law enforcement topics are always in demand on the media agenda, both at the federal level and at the regional level.

    pdf 78-83.pdf  (156 Kb)

  • Savina S.V., Solovjova S.V., Udychak F.N.
    Police activity as an object of sociological analysis

    Russian modern society poses increased requirements for the effectiveness and quality of performance of official duties by law enforcement officials. In this regard, a sociological analysis of the image (social portrait) of a police officer, which has developed in the consciousness of the Russian population, is of significant importance. The activities of the police are reflected in the public consciousness by trends and patterns of the state and dynamics of the level of personal security, which determines the significance of monitoring research of public opinion on the activities of the police. The methodological basis of this study is the general scientific methods of analyzing and summarizing the activities of law enforcement agencies. Based on the analysis of the regulations governing the activities of internal affairs officers, the criteria for ensuring the effective work of the police officer are determined. Based on the results of sociological studies conducted on the territory of the Russian Federation in 2016-2019, the author concludes that the level of public trust in the police and the degree of approval of the activities of law enforcement officers has gradually increased. In order to improve the activities of the bodies of the Ministry of Internal Affairs of Russia, the authors offer to introduce mechanisms to ensure the information openness of the police, which will increase the level of public confidence in law enforcement agencies.

    pdf 84-90.pdf  (246 Kb)

  • Tyun A.P.
    Trust in the police in Russian society: importance, relevant state, prospects

    For modern society, one of the key factors for achieving internal stability is the effective work of law enforcement agencies. In turn, one of the most important conditions for the effectiveness of law enforcement agencies is the confidence of the population in the police. The article explores the social significance of trust in the police. The author proves that trust in the police is an important factor in the effectiveness of law enforcement agencies. An analysis is made of current trends in the formation of attitudes towards law enforcement agencies in the civilian environment. The trend towards stereotyping the perceptions of law enforcement officials is described. It is proved that the processes of borrowing someone else's experience and other people's ideas about the police, as well as the perception of media images of police officers, rather than the experience of interaction of the population with law enforcement agencies, have a predominant role in the formation of attitude to the police. The negative assessment of society on the quality of the work of internal affairs bodies was due to the presence of stereotypes about the preservation in their functionality of opportunistic practices that took place in the 1990s. The author suggests that it is necessary to convey a positive model of the perception of law enforcement agencies in Russian society using modern information technologies.

    pdf 91-96.pdf  (157 Kb)

  • Shevchenko O.P.
    Entrepreneurial culture: problems in determining meaningful sense

    The sociological analysis of entrepreneurial culture is faced with a number of methodological difficulties, due, among other things, to the inconsistency of the conceptual apparatus. Many significantly different definitions of the concept of "entrepreneurial culture", as well as the simultaneous existence of definitions close in meaning, complicate theoretical and applied sociological analysis, especially at the level of developing indicators of manifestations of entrepreneurial culture. That is why the desire for consensus on the content of the concept of "entrepreneurial culture," as well as its main features, is relevant for modern sociological science. Special attention is paid to the distinction between the concepts of "entrepreneurial culture", "culture of entrepreneurship" and "entrepreneurial ethics." Entrepreneurial culture is considered through the lens of the dynamic correlation of external economic conditions, the internal organizational and technical structure of entrepreneurship and social relations arising between economic entities. Entrepreneurial ethics is a specific element of the entrepreneurial culture, which regulates the regulatory requirements imposed on the subjects of entrepreneurial activity, and justifies the need to follow the moral imperatives of entrepreneurship. The author suggests that there is a significant potential of sociological science in the development of a system of methodological indicators for determining the ethical and normative nature of entrepreneurship.

    pdf 97-102.pdf  (156 Kb)

  • Mashchenko I.V.
    PR impact on conflict in the information society

    The author in this article reflects on the specifics of the conflict situation in the information society and on the impact of public relations on this situation. The information society requires universal access to information as a prerequisite for social change. The author notes that the attitude of researchers to information is ambiguous - from the source of overcoming crises and conflicts to the means of wealth accumulation for individual social groups. The author points out that mass communication can act as coercive to the action of one member of the society by another, which is possible due to the introduction of various assessments of events in the mass consciousness. In response to the increasing importance of communication and information in society, a social institution, such as the Public Relations, is emerging, the main purpose of which is to establish friendly relations with society. The author focuses his scientific interest precisely on conflict situation and delimits manipulative technologies in managing the conflict situation from influencing value-normative attitudes, worldview and ideological principles of the target audience by various situations of conflict.

    pdf 73-77.pdf  (138 Kb)


  • Akieva Kh.M.
    Ingush felt art as a type of traditional handicraft

    The article discusses traditional technological processes of wool processing (cleaning, washing, drying, felting), and describes the local handicrafts used in this process (combs, heckles, spinning wheels, machines). The author identifies the types of carpet felt products - a single-color carpet, or a two-color or multi-color carpets with a felted/rolled or applicative/stitching pattern. Each of the presented types performed its own specific function: wooden chests, trestle beds, and beds were decorated with single two-color ones, they covered the floor, they were used to perform a namaz or during funerary ritual actions. Multicolored felt carpets were used during wedding rites: they were part of the dowry of the bride, they covered the seat of the wedding car, and they decorated the walls of the premises. The work reveals the features and folk secrets of the production of felt cloaks and woolen fabrics. Based on the material of archeology and oral folk art, the author shows the deep archaic nature of the art of spinning and weaving in the Ingush environment. The author arrives at a conclusion that there are similarities between elements of traditional handicraft among ethnic groups of the North Caucasus and the nomadic peoples of Russia.

    pdf 103-110.pdf  (295 Kb)

  • Kozobrod E.G., Levitina I.Yu., Meloyan E.S.
    Theatrical fashion shows in the Kuban: sociocultural aspect

    The article discusses new forms of sociocultural interaction - the activities of fashion theaters in the Krasnodar Territory and Adyghea. This issue requires a separate scientific understanding, although it is an important element of sociocultural interaction and the creation of a new appearance of people of the late twentieth century. An analysis is made of the influence of social transformations in the late 1980s - early 1990s on the development of the fashion industry in the Soviet Union. The beginning of the work of fashion theaters in the late 1980s in the South of Russia contributed to the dissemination of information about fashion, the activities of sewing and knitting enterprises, and had an aesthetic and educational effect on various socio-demographic categories of the population: children, youth, and adult audiences. The work examined the activities of two fashion theaters of the Krasnodar Territory, which had a great influence on the culture of the Kuban and the activities of sewing and knitting enterprises. Thanks to the activities of fashion theaters, a new attitude towards man and his appearance was formed, the assortment of enterprises expanded, and new commercial and educational opportunities for the development of enterprises arose, which by the beginning of the 21st century were successfully built into the modern leisure and entertainment infrastructure of Russia.

    pdf 111-117.pdf  (169 Kb)


  • Agapov P.V.
    Review of the official opponent on the thesis submitted for the degree of Doctor of Law on specialty 12.00.08: Beshukova Z.M. “Mechanism of criminal-law counteraction to extremist activities: content, structure, main directions of optimization”

    This paper presents a full and objective assessment of the doctoral dissertation “The mechanism of criminal-law counteraction to extremist activities: content, structure, main directions of optimization”, prepared by Zarema Muratovna Beshukova and successfully defended in 2021 at the Dissertation Council at the Chechen State University. The author's concept of the mechanism of criminal-law counteraction to extremist activity is analyzed. The dissertation's contribution to the understanding and clarification of the doctrinal principles of criminal legal counteraction to extremist activities in the face of growing external threats to Russia's national security is noted. The unconditional relevance of the study, its theoretical and practical significance, and representativity of empirical material are confirmed. The main provisions submitted for defending, representing the author's concept of work, are supported. The reviewer's views are provided on the positions set out in the dissertation regarding: the legal concept of “extremist activity (extremism)”; a number of proposals by the author of the dissertation in the order de lege ferenda; a refined system of criteria for the “publicity” attribute, as well as the basic doctrinal categories used in the dissertation study. Certain provisions of the dissertation study are critically evaluated, and some provisions are identified that require additional scientific study or argumentation.

    pdf 118-126.pdf  (192 Kb)

  • Akaev V.Kh.
    Review of the monograph “Islam in the AdygheaRepublic at the beginning of the 21st century: an empirical study”. ATLAS (2nd ed.,supplemented). [Z.A. Zhade, N.A. Ilyinova, E.S. Kukva, S.A. Lyausheva, V.N. Nekhay]; Ed. Prof. S.A. Lyausheva. –Maykop: AGU Pub

    The review is devoted to the theoretical and methodological analysis of socio-cultural transformations of the spiritual space of Islam in a multi-confessional region. The work shows that the increase in destructive rhetoric in modern media is a factor in the destabilization of interfaith relations in public life. The study conducted by the author's team of Adyghe State University made it possible to theoretically justify and empirically confirm the value of the moral principles of Islam in strengthening civil society in Russia. Special attention is paid to the analysis of the ritual practice of the Muslim Ummah, the prospects for their reproduction in a post-secular society, as well as transformational processes in the socioaxiological space that affected the way of life of believers. Thestudyalso considers the peculiarities of mutual determinatenessof religious and ethnocultural values, acting as basic identification guidelines of the Muslim community of Adyghea. Based on the analysis of the results of the sociological research carried out, the most stable ethno-confessional stereotypes in the Muslim environment, preserving the consolidation potential in the context of globalization, are highlighted. It is concluded that the research model proposed by the author's team is effective in studying the socio-integrative resource of Islam in the Russian multicultural region.

    pdf 127-130.pdf  (124 Kb)


  • Chekalov P.K., Cherkashina S.P.
    Iskhak Mashbash's creativity in scientific coverage: the experience of monographic research

    pdf 215-219.pdf  (101 Kb)