The Bulletin of the Adyghe State University,<br />
the series “Region Studies: Philosophy, History, Sociology, Jurisprudence, Political Sciences and Culturology” The Bulletin of the Adyghe State University,
the series “Region Studies: Philosophy, History, Sociology, Jurisprudence, Political Sciences and Culturology”
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#4 / 2020


  • Baghdasaryan S.D., Samsonenko T.A.
    Stages of the formation of the Soviet resort: the city of Sochi as an example

    The article provides an analysis of the state policy of the USSR in the field of health resort construction. We are considering the accumulated experience of legal regulation, the creation of a management apparatus, a system of training and cultural infrastructure of resort cities. The formation of the model of the Soviet resort in the period 1917-1991 is analyzed using an example of the resort city of Sochi. Emphasis is placed on the historical formation of the model of the Soviet resort, its structure, functional purpose depending on the political and socio-economic tasks of the state. The essence of the Soviet policy of resort business is determined, the experience of which is drawn to the state policy of the Russian Federation when building approaches to the development of the health resort infrastructure of the country. The purpose of this work is to study the positive experience of health resort support for Soviet citizens. The main task of the authors was to demonstrate the evolution of the methods of state health resort policy in the USSR. The study is based on a complex of scientific methods: comparative-historical and statistical. Also, the method of periodization and allocation of chronological links in the development of the state doctrine of health resort policy played a special role in building the model of the Soviet resort. The conclusion is made about the historical achievements and shortcomings of the Soviet resort. It is proposed to consider the question of the continuity of the model of the Soviet resort, its social orientation for the development of social policy in Russia.

    pdf 15-21.pdf  (155 Kb)

  • Batchaeva A.M.
    Transformation of the local government system in the Karachay and Cherkessia mountain settlements during the civil war (March 1918 - November 1920)

    The article is devoted to the process of transforming the system of local government in the mountain settlements of the Upper Kuban (on the territory of modern Karachay-Cherkessia) during the civil war (March 1918 - November 1920). The article considers the main stages of these transformations in the region: the organization of Councils of Workers’ Deputies after the approval of Soviet power (March 1918), the revival by the white administration of imperial management institutions with separate elements introduced during the period of bourgeois democracy (September 1918), the creation of revolutionary committees after the secondary establishment of Soviet power (March 1920), the functioning of local administration during the anti-Soviet uprising (September-October 1920). The problems of law enforcement by local and Soviet authorities in the region, as well as the means of political propaganda used by the White Guard and Soviet administrations in the mountain settlements of Karachay and Cherkessia deserve special attention. It is concluded that the final establishment of Soviet power in the territory of modern Karachay-Cherkessia after the protest events of October-November 1920 took place peacefully and set new socio-political and economic tasks for the region.

    pdf 22-30.pdf  (151 Kb)

  • Bondar V.V.
    "Castle in the Cossack city": the official status and role of the Ekaterinodar fortress in the history of the region

    The article deals with the circumstances of the emergence and existence of the fortress - an earthen fortification erected at the end of the 18th century in the southern part of the built military city of Ekaterinodar - the administrative center of the land of the Black Sea Cossack army. An analysis is made of the fortification qualities of the fortress, its strategic role, military-administrative, economic and other functions in the Black Sea Cossack army. The publication describes the fortress of different periods, battle episodes in which it was calcified; the functional and spatial transformation of the fortress after the end of the Caucasus War and the transformation of Ekaterinodar from a military to a civilian city, up to the destruction of defensive structures and the transfer of fortress buildings to a military hospital. The role of the fortress in the history of Ekaterinodar and the Kuban is evaluated compared to its official status on the scale of the Russian Empire. Information is given on the use of former fortress outbuildings by the military, and then by the regional hospital. The article clarifies the circumstances of the development of the former serf territory, giving its remains the status of an object of cultural heritage (as a monument of history and fortification) and their destruction. The author arrives at a conclusion about the gradual loss of the importance of the territory in the life of the region's troops since the abolition of the fortress and the transfer of administrative institutions from here.

    pdf 31-44.pdf  (241 Kb)

  • Karapetyan L.A., Vinogradov B.V.
    Reflection of the state structure of Russia in leaflets of the North Caucasus Cadet-Octobrist organizations during the First Russian Revolution

    The relevance of the topic is that political parties in Russia at the beginning of the 20th century were important generators of ideas that influenced the choice of the country’s state structure. The object of research is regional organizations of the Cadet and Octobrist Parties. The subject of the article is assessment of the state structure of Russia reflected in the leaflets of the North Caucasus Cadet and Octobrist Organizations (1905 1907). The article discloses specifics of assessment of the real and the desired state structure of Russia in leaflets of the Cadet and Octobrist Party Organizations of the North Caucasus a multiethnic, multi-religious, agricultural region. The publication reveals differences between General Party doctrines and views of party leaders of local organizations on the most important issues. There are differences in the solution of the national question. The authors prove that the cadets in the North Caucasus were in favor of granting regional autonomy to a wider range of territories than the Central Committee of the Cadet Party. The idea of turning the State Duma into a Constitional Assembly was promoted. In the North Caucasus, in comparison with the Zemstvo regions, the social environment for the perception of liberal ideas was much narrower, which has affected the activities of regional party organizations.

    pdf 45-53.pdf  (174 Kb)

  • Kasyanov V.V., Chuprynnikov S.A.
    Historical memory, social memory: dialectics of interaction

    In this article, the statement that the study of memory as a complex phenomenon of life is associated with the existence of at least two approaches - historical and social - served as the starting methodological prerequisite for the subsequent analysis of research material. The problems of research, aimed at establishing the dialectic of the interaction of historical and social memory, allow us, within the framework of available historical memory as a whole, to differentiate social memory as something special, because historical experience triggers the mechanisms of the functioning of social memory. The article reveals the fundamental nature of memory by sequentially explaining the totality of such processes as: memorizing (selecting information), storing, reproducing and referencing information (erasing certain events from memory, striking out a fact from historical memory). Based on the analysis of the dialectic of the interaction of historical and social memory, it is concluded that there is a close interconnection and complementarity of historical processes reflected in historical and social memory, aimed at understanding the events of the past in order to find and determine value and meaning guidelines in the present.

    pdf 54-61.pdf  (138 Kb)

  • Melsitov V.V., Sergienko N.L., Chernysheva S.A.
    Nuremberg lessons and modernity

    The Second World War, which claimed 50 million human lives, destroyed thousands of cities, villages and towns, the entire infrastructure of the then world was the worst bloody tragedy in the history of mankind. The logical conclusion of this truly global tragedy was the International Military Tribunal for Nazi Criminals, which went down in history as the Court of Peoples. The International Military Tribunal began its work on November 20, 1945 in Nuremberg and ended on October 1, 1946. The trial of fascist criminals was long, a total of 403 public meetings were held. Passions in Western historiography about who initiated this process still do not abate. However, today, based on the facts, it can be safely argued that the idea of the Court of Peoples belonged to the Soviet Union. Therefore, today, when 75 years have passed since the beginning of the Nuremberg trial, it is very important and necessary to give correct assessments of what was, what did and how the International Tribunal classified German Nazism and its inhuman atrocities. The peoples' court rightly condemned not only the leaders of the Third Reich, but also recognized as criminal the leadership of the Nazi party (NSDAP), the Gestapo (secret police), security units (SS) and the security service (SD). The sentence of the Nuremberg trial was severe, but fair. Twelve main war criminals were sentenced to death by hanging, three were sentenced to life imprisonment, and four to imprisonment for a term of 10 to 20 years. The court worked for almost a year, the verbatim record of the process took 16,000 pages, during the trial the prosecutors presented 2,630 documents, the defense - 2,700. Twenty-seven lawyers represented the defence and were assisted by 54 legal assistants and 67 secretaries. Twenty-seven km of magnetic tape and 7 thousand gramophone disks were required to record the process. Today, when neo-fascists and nationalists again raise their heads in different parts of the world, it is worth recalling the lessons of Nuremberg and the inevitability of punishment from the world community.

    pdf 62-67.pdf  (128 Kb)

  • Rakachev V.N., Rakacheva Ya.V.
    Dynamics of population size and structure in the regions of Adyghea in the second half of the 20th - early 21st centuries

    The study of demographic phenomena has remained one of the most significant scientific directions over the past decades. While recognizing the important role of regional particularities and the variability in the demographic development of specific territories, researchers are predominantly focused on the global, national and subregional levels. In this article, based on a set of statistical materials, an analysis is carried out of the demographic structures and population size at the level of municipal districts of Adyghea for more than 40 years (1979-2020). This approach makes it possible to identify specific demographic situation, show the effect of local factors that determine it. The analysis concludes that a number of changes observed in the population of the Adyghea regions are of the nature of universal transformations characteristic of most Russian territories. At the same time, the deformation of the sexual structure towards the further superiority of the female population, the processes of aging, the reduction in the proportion of children, the increase in the demographic burden, and the reduction in the absolute number at the level of specific areas are characterized by a significant peculiarity and are due to ethnocultural factors.

    pdf 68-81.pdf  (367 Kb)

  • Tkhagapsova G.G.
    The formation of Soviet health care in Maykop (1917-1941)

    The article deals with the process of the formation of the Soviet health care system basing on an example of the Maykop Department (with a center in Maykop) of the Kuban-Black Sea region. Based on an analysis of archival materials, the author shows that despite the difficulties of the transition period related to the civil war, the destruction of previous management structures and the lack of stability in the new ones, urban health organizations received a lot of attention. There was a constant search for new rational clear organizational forms of management. Given the fact that doctors worked with great overload, often combining several positions, they tried to provide them with material assistance. The system paid great attention to the protection of motherhood and childhood, preventive, sanitary and epidemic measures, and the fight against "social diseases". Despite the significant socio-economic difficulties caused by the process of the formation of the new Soviet government, the progressive development of urban health care was gaining momentum. By the beginning of World War II, the Maykop health system had achieved significant results in organizing assistance to the population and was ready to withstand impending difficulties.

    pdf 82-86.pdf  (125 Kb)

  • Cheucheva A.K.
    Ancient ports and harbors of the North Caucasus coast of the Black Sea

    The article traces the history of the emergence of ports and harbors on the North Caucasus coast of the Black Sea in ancient times. The sea was a place of contact between the inhabitants of the region and the rest of the world. The author justifies the idea that the development of the Black Sea coast took place by various peoples in several stages. The Greeks made the main contribution to the creation of ports and harbors, creating trade empories at the first stage, then developed the territory, creating apoikia colonies. Greek settlers came to the regions densely populated by various peoples. Therefore, the article suggests that many harbors may not have been founded by the Greeks. As an example, you can point to the Sindh harbor built by the Sindhes. Some researchers place it on the site of Anapa. Analyzing modern material, the author concludes that more than 20 ports and harbors that had important geopolitical and socio-economic significance for the development of trade relations between the Northern Black Sea region and the Mediterranean countries could exist in the studied space in ancient times.

    pdf 87-95.pdf  (380 Kb)


  • Duplenko V.I.,Kasparov A.R.
    The phenomenon of "fakes about coronavirus" in the context of information security of the Russian Federation

    In the 21st century, with the development of information and computer technologies, a number of systemic contradictions related to the macro environment of the global world system have formed, which pose a threat to Russia's information security. The state of information security of the Russian society assumes a balance of several facts related to the political, economic, social and spiritual spheres of Russian society, which is not always feasible in practice. Of particular concern is the virtual environment that the Internet embodies. A decrease in the quality of information, primarily in the global network, periodically leads to negative social consequences. In particular, the quality of information has deteriorated in recent decades, while the scientific and technological component in social communication has increased significantly. This contradiction is reflected in the phenomenon of information overload, when the intensification of mass-communicative impact on the audience leads to effects that are directly opposite to what the Communicator expects. The result of the deterioration in the quality of information was the "Renaissance" of rumors – one of the most ancient forms of communication of mankind, which in the 21st century. once again, has taken a key position in the structure of the means of receiving and transmitting messages. In 2020, in the context of the coronavirus pandemic (COVID-19), against the background of the indicated contradictions in the mass communication system, a significant problem was the dissemination of false information, which can lead to panic, mass phobias, increased social tension, etc., that is why the domestic legislator developed legal acts aimed at countering false information about the coronavirus. However, to optimize the functioning of the management system, it is important to verify the developed models in practice, since along with positive ones, there may also be pronounced negative effects associated with a decrease in information freedom, which corresponds to the classical formula for updating rumors as a response of society to the prohibitive actions of state management structures in the mass communication system.

    pdf 96-103.pdf  (146 Kb)

  • Zhade Z.A., Shadzhe A.Yu., Lyausheva S. A., Ilyinova N.A., Kukva E.S.
    Regional power and society in conditions of uncertainty and risk: (des)integration index as the basis of interaction model

    The article analyzes the problem of interaction between the authorities and society in the regional communities of the Adyghea Republic and the Krasnodar Territory in the context of a global pandemic. Also, the article analyzes the results of a sociological survey conducted in September-October 2020 in these regions using the questionnaire method (N = 1171). Based on empirical data reflecting indicators which were combined into the following blocks: information and communication, competence, readiness for cooperation, trust, and publicity of regional policies, the authors calculated individual, aggregate and integral indices of social (des)integration. The integral index was 103.6 in the Krasnodar Territory and 125.5 in the Adyghea Republic. Based on the analysis of (des)integration indices for each of the regions and taking into account methodological requirements, the authors constructed a descriptive model of interaction between power and society in regional communities in a risk setting. The model makes it possible to predict direct risk management based on a combination with self-organization processes with the lowest expenses for the integrity and consolidation of regional societies. Based on the identified level of interaction between government and society in regional communities of the pandemic, crisis and high risk period, it is concluded that it is necessary to intensify the interaction of horizontal ties ("unifying practices") in society and vertical ties between society and power. To this end, measures are proposed to identify and use the possibilities of risks and hazards, and combine the resource of social capital with the "soft management" of society and the direction of risk.

    pdf 104-121.pdf  (417 Kb)

  • Zueva O.V., Demidov N.N.
    Problems of increasing the prestige of leading police units in the context of improving personnel policy in the internal affairs bodies of the Russian Federation

    The purpose of this study is to analyze the prestige of the service of various police units, taking into account the specifics of their activities and determine ways to increase it in the modern conditions of the development of Russian society. The relevance of the selected issue is due to the need to improve personnel policy in the internal affairs bodies. In recent years, there has been a tendency to increase the shortage of personnel in the leading police services, which is partly due to a decrease in the prestige of service in the internal affairs bodies, both among the population and among current employees. The authors analyze the personnel situation in such units as the criminal investigation, patrol and post service and drug trafficking control units, which seem to be the most problematic in this regard. Empirical evidence shows that there is a mixed situation due to the fact that units with a shortage of personnel, at the same time, according to staff, are the most prestigious in the system of Internal Affairs Department. Based on sociological surveys, the authors show the main factors affecting the prestige of the service, taking into account the specifics of the activities of employees. These include: the size of the allowance, career prospects, normalization of official time and "usefulness of work". The article justifies the most effective areas of management to overcome the problematic situation in the personnel policy of the Internal Affairs Department. This is primarily: improving the system of qualification requirements for posts in the internal affairs bodies with regard to the assignment of special ranks; revision of the system of allowances for certain categories of employees; and improving the social security system. The authors conclude that focusing on increasing the prestige of the service, taking into account the specifics of the activities of individual units, should become a priority area of personnel policy in the Internal Affairs Department.

    pdf 122-131.pdf  (178 Kb)

  • Ilyinova N.A.
    Activities of the "fourth power" in the face of the global challenge: assessments of the regional community

    In the context of the new coronavirus reality, the interaction of power and society is of great importance. In this regard, public awareness of the new global threat is of particular significance. The ability of the media and social networks to fill the official information vacuum with reliable information in a timely manner is an effective way to combat fakes that are aimed at increasing the emotional background of the predominant part of the country's population, plunging into panic. Russian sociological studies demonstrate a low level of confidence in official statistics on COVID-19, most Russians are confident that information is deliberately distorted. However, Russia is a country of regions, in connection with which the author suggests that the regional community has a different point of view on the activities of the "fourth government" to inform about the spread of coronavirus, about the situation in the country and the world in the new reality. The author's conclusions are based on the results of a sociological study conducted by the scientific team of Adyghe State University in the Krasnodar Territory and the Adyghea Republic.

    pdf 132-137.pdf  (655 Kb)

  • Kasparov A.R., Savina S.V.
    Contemporary methods of studying public opinion about the police activities

    The article analyzes the results of monitoring studies of public opinion on the activities of the police by various sociological services. This is due to the content and structure of the tasks assigned to the internal affairs bodies, consistent with the expectations of the authorities and citizens in maintaining the necessary level of personal and collective security, the protection of the population from various threats of a criminal nature, as well as the development of directions for improving technologies to strengthen the level of trust and respect of society for the police. The creation of a positive image, as a rule, increases the prestige and, therefore, respect for the authority and influence of law enforcement agencies. The positive image of an employee of the internal affairs bodies is an important factor in the high rating of the police among other state institutions of power, which is very important in the modern information space of public life. The assessment of public opinion also affects the high image of the police officer, where his activities are carried out in the context of the transformation processes taking place in the police. The effective form and task of monitoring is to obtain sociological information that allows assessing the problem at the federal and regional levels. It is concluded that the main criterion for any monitoring is the acquisition of sociological information to assess the factors, conditions, state and prospects of victimization, the nature of citizens' confidence in the police in matters of ensuring their property and personal security. An effective method in the scientific and methodological improvement of the study of public opinion about the police is the placement of information and analytical materials on an ongoing basis in departmental media and on the official website of the Ministry of Internal Affairs of Russia on the Internet. Some studies provide information and analysis for the formal assessment of law enforcement.

    pdf 138-145.pdf  (147 Kb)

  • Netrebko E.N., Hlabystova N.V.
    Distance learning during pandemic COVID-2019: from materials of empirical research

    Distance learning has long been seen as advanced technologies that enhance the competitiveness of an educational institution in the service market. However, it is necessary to study whether this is the case when implementing this form of providing educational services. In the article, the authors analyze the formation and development of distance learning in Russia, as well as the merits and shortcomings of distance learning for students. The merits of distance learning are as follows: distance learning allows higher education in-service, reduces material costs and saves time for education, makes higher education more accessible to people with disabilities, students can independently organize the educational process, and for an educational institution a remote form of education makes it possible to increase the contingent while reducing the costs of the educational process. Shortcomings include the lack of "live communication" of the student - teacher, student - student, student - university administration, a number of areas of training suggest only a traditional form of training, for example, technical or technological, in which the curricula provide laboratory work, as well as the training of doctors and medical workers; not all students are capable of organizing the educational process themselves; universal competencies of students in the learning process are not fully developed; and such form of training makes it impossible to control the independence of students to perform tasks, and also will not allow teachers to control the assimilation of material. Based on the conducted sociological study, the authors assess the real advantages and disadvantages of distance learning, as well as the degree of satisfaction of distance learning students. The authors rightly emphasize that the distance form of education does not affect the degree of satisfaction of students with education only by correspondence, and elements of this form of education need to be developed and improved in higher educational institutions for correspondence students as a competitive advantage of an educational institution in the market of educational services. Also in the article, the authors conduct a secondary analysis of the results of sociological studies of the All-Russian Center for the Study of Public Opinion and St. Petersburg State Economic University.

    pdf 146-151.pdf  (123 Kb)

  • Oleynichenko N.Ya.
    The impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on increasing social inequality among young people

    In this article, the author proposes to consider the pandemic of a new coronavirus infection COVID-19 as a risk that plunged the entire world community into a state of "uncertainty”. The founders of riskology point to the need to adapt society to any risk, the author transfers this idea to the coronavirus pandemic. There is an ambiguous influence of COVID-19 on all spheres of life of society, which many researchers classify as a crisis. The author focuses attention on the issue of social inequality of young people and traces the factors manifested in the conditions of the coronavirus pandemic and exacerbating the social inequality of this socio-demographic group. The urgent digitalization of Russian society, the transition to remote forms of work of all educational organizations, the introduction of a remote form of work, which negatively affected the number of jobs – this is the main list of reasons indicated by the author as provoking the growth of social inequality of youth. As a result, the author notes that the State needs to develop a set of measures aimed at reducing the negative impact of the COVID-19 reality on increasing social inequality among young people.

    pdf 152-156.pdf  (183 Kb)

  • Ptuschenko E.B., Khurum R.Yu., Megrikyan I.G.
    Digital literacy as a tool for socializing the "third age" generation

    Digital technologies have created an innovative, technocratic, information technology, and civilized reality in society. The use of these technologies makes it possible to successfully adapt and socialize older people in the modern world. The aim of this study is to conduct an analytical review of the use of new information technologies and effective methods for generating digital literacy for people of the third age category. A number of specialized Federal programs, general and special technologies are considered to provide the older generation of people with opportunities for their social adaptation in the information society. The main competencies and indicators forming them are identified. The main feature of many electronic information resources, their complete openness, is shown. Modern interactive information technologies of digital literacy formation are presented. Their positive opportunities are in increasing the interest of the older generation in the assimilation and application of information technologies in everyday life. It has been revealed that these training programs and courses form social beliefs and attitudes about the forms of behavior and communication necessary in a digital society. As a result, it is stated that digital literacy implements a new information reality of socialization and adaptation of people of the "third" age category and is expressed in their comfortable existence in an information and digital society.

    pdf 157-166.pdf  (166 Kb)

  • Rakhmanin R.A.
    Alternative theories of developing deviant behavior of young people in Russian contemporary society

    The article examines the problems of deviant behavior of representatives of the younger generation in the conditions of transformation and modernization of the social structure of Russian contemporary society. In the context of this study, young people are characterized as a specific socio-demographic layer of the population of the Russian Federation, belonging to the age group from 14 to 30 years. According to the author, the youth socio-demographic group is at risk of developing deviant behavior. This fact is due to the fact that it is this age group that has a particularly acute reaction, both on various social conflicts and on the process of social transformation and modernization, which, in turn, is directly related to high social attitudes of the individual, dissatisfaction with which leads to social apathy and, as a result, to deviations. The article reveals the relationship between the concepts of "deviant behavior," "social norm," and "social pathology". The author makes a detailed analysis of the integrative interdisciplinary nature of the study of deviant behavior, as well as considers key scientific and theoretical approaches to the study of deviations. In particular, the work analyzes the main theories that most accurately characterize the causes of deviations, such as biological, anthropological, behavioral, cultural and sociological. The author pays special attention to the sociological theory of the emergence of deviations, the main components of which are multifactorial driving models. The author focuses on major theories on deviance within the framework of the sociological concept, including the anomie theories of E. Durkheim, R. Merton, and the differential association theory of E.G. Sutherland. The work analyzes the main reasons fostering deviations in the youth environment in the conditions of Russian modern reality. As the main factors of the emergence of deviant behavior of youth, the author identifies: a pronounced social stratification of Russian society, problems of an economic nature and difficulties associated with socially acceptable self-expression and self-realization. The article also presents official statistics on the problems of deviant behavior of youth from 2015 to 2019.

    pdf 167-172.pdf  (122 Kb)

  • Tyun A.P.
    Culture of departmental education as a factor of effective interaction between police officers and the civilian population

    In modern society, there are serious prerequisites for violating the effectiveness of law enforcement agencies, associated with the negative attitude of the civilian population towards the police. The article proves that distrust of the police and its rejection in the public environment entails an increase in the prerequisites for the development of crime, as well as hinders the implementation of law enforcement activities. The analysis of the reasons for the negative attitude towards the police and possible ways to rectify the situation proves that the personal qualities of police officers, their professionalism, level of cultural development, and value orientations have the potential to overcome existing negative trends. The view is justified that departmental educational institutions in which future law enforcement officials are trained have a high potential to influence the current situation. The development of the humane aspect of police education is proposed as one of the key measures to regulate police-civilian relations. The author concludes that the level of public confidence in law enforcement agencies depends not only on the level of professionalism and competence of police officers, but also on their cultural and communicative qualities.

    pdf 173-179.pdf  (129 Kb)

  • Hlabystova N.V., Tereschenko I.A.
    Assessment of full-time distance learning by students during the COVID-2019 pandemic (the case study of Kuban State University of Technology)

    In the article, distance learning is considered as a form of learning that does not require a single physical presence in one audience of the instructor and trainee, organized mainly on the Internet and using modern means of communication - audio, video and satellite communication channels [1]. With the wide spread of radio and television, a remote form of education begins its history of formation and development. The desire to gain knowledge of the media caused interest among many. However, training by television and radio had a significant drawback - trainees (listeners) did not have the opportunity to interact with teachers and receive feedback from them. In 1969, the world's first distance learning university was opened in the UK. The goal of creating the first remote educational institution was to make higher education accessible to all the population (low tuition fees). The widespread use of personal computers in the late 1980s simplified distance learning in the world. In Russia, since 1997, this form of training begins to develop (Order No. 1050 of the Ministry of Education of the Russian Federation). With the mass development of distance education in the world, it becomes the object of study of sciences such as pedagogy, psychology, and sociology. Distance learning has long been seen as advanced technologies that enhance the competitiveness of an educational institution in the service market. However, it is necessary to study how full-time students evaluate the distance form of study during the pandemic, and how much universities were ready to switch to this format. On the basis of the conducted sociological study, the authors assess the real advantages and disadvantages of the distance form of study, as well as the degree of satisfaction of the full-time student with the distance form of study. The authors rightly emphasize that despite the significant contribution to the development of distance learning, experience shows that the use of this format is suitable not for all students. It may be necessary for full-time students to use distance learning elements so that if the epidemiological situation worsens, they have experience using the educational process of this format. Also, in the article, the authors conduct a secondary analysis of the results of sociological studies of the Higher School of Economics.

    pdf 180-185.pdf  (198 Kb)

  • Chagin V.S.
    Social factors of suicidal risks in the youth environment of contemporary Russia

    This article studies the main conditions and factors contributing to the development of suicidal risks in the youth environment of Russian contemporary society, as well as the main methods of preventive impact, which can have a significant influence on the process of overcoming this negative trend. The author notes that along with the main traditional factors that can form suicidal tendencies in the consciousness of a young individual, such as the transformation of the value – sense-bearing structure of society and youth in particular, the social maladaptation of the person, the problems of family and domestic relations, the influence of the socio-cultural environment, etc., it is necessary to distinguish new factors of modern society. This is the Internet system, the media and the works of cinema. According to the author, it is under their influence that young people are exposed to the greatest risks of transforming value consciousness and moral and ethical standards. Along with issues related to the study of the main causes of suicidal risks in the youth environment of modern Russia, the issue of developing basic measures to prevent suicidal behavior is analyzed in the work. The work identifies priority areas in the field of prevention of suicidal risks, these include: - Organizing measures to prevent suicidal risks and various forms of violence against young people; - The formation of specialized response services, in which specialists of various profiles should perform their functions; - Blocking of destructive groups and sites promoting suicidal acts; - Introduction of specialized education programmes for professionals working with young people to prevent suicide. According to the author, the juvenile policy of state bodies aimed at preventing suicidal risks in the youth environment of modern society could be one of the most effective measures to achieve results in the studied problem. On the basis of the above stated, the author concludes that the conditions and factors analyzed are fundamental in the process of shaping the suicidal behavior of young people.

    pdf 186-191.pdf  (119 Kb)

  • Shevchenko O.P.
    Entrepreneurial culture in the sociocultural space of Russian society

    The article discusses the relationship between entrepreneurial culture and mentality in Russian contemporary society. An attempt is made to analyze the mechanisms of the influence of the Russian mentality on entrepreneurial culture, especially in the aspect of social mood, emotional and sensual perception by entrepreneurs of the surrounding socio-economic reality. Attention is drawn to the social contradiction, which consists, on the one hand, in rationalizing business strategies, and on the other hand, in a certain irrationality of socio-cultural attitudes related to the Russian mentality. Characteristic features of the mentality of Russian society have been identified influencing the development of entrepreneurial culture, including: mentality as an instrument for translating the historical memory of previous generations; mentality as a system of aggravated emotional and sensory response to the surrounding reality; the mentality of Russian society as a space for accumulating a specific perception of the state and law in the coordinates "justice - injustice". Based on the analysis of the entrepreneurial culture of modern Russians, the author concludes that its deterministic mental attitudes are symbiosis of rational-logical and emotionally-sensual constructs that actualize irrational elements of consciousness and behavior in the professional environment.

    pdf 192-197.pdf  (167 Kb)

  • Yakovenko M.L., Ozarkiv O.M.
    Intercultural collaboration among seafarers

    The article considers the specifics of intercultural collaboration of a professional group of Russian sailors of the civil fleet in conditions of inclusion in multicultural contexts of professional activity. Based on a secondary analysis of a number of empirical studies carried out by the authors, some aspects of the national-cultural presentation of Russian sailors in the professional environment of international navigation are clarified. The functional interconnectedness of seafarers, the commonality of goals and administrative tasks determine the formation of a single maritime professional community that remains stable in conditions of permanent intercultural communications. At the same time, the data of the study show that ethno-national stereotypes are a significant conflict factor in the socially isolated professional environment of modern navigators. It is argued that stereotypes of the behavior of Russian sailors, due to the influence of the traditions and values of Russian maritime culture, determine their professional identity, linguistic competence, reaction to the level of conflict in the team, and the specifics of attitude to governing structures. It is concluded that the organizational and corporate culture of seafarers of international navigation is dependent on the nature of intercultural collaboration representing the basic elements of ethno-social structures in the professional community.

    pdf 198-207.pdf  (227 Kb)

  • Yakovleva T.N., Leonova O.V.
    Features of leisure activities of modern young people in rural areas

    The relevance of the chosen topic is due to the fact that at present the socio-cultural situation in rural areas is characterized by a number of negative processes that have emerged in the field of spiritual life in the conditions of market relations. On the one hand, in modern society there is a loss of spiritual and moral guidelines, alienation from the culture and art of children, youth and adults, and, on the other hand, by inertia, since the early 1990s, the residual principle of financing cultural institutions remains. To identify the conditions for leisure of rural youth, the authors conducted a sociological study among the youth of one of the villages of the Astrakhan region. Value orientations of rural youth, preferences in spending free time, new forms of cultural and leisure activities, as well as reasons for dissatisfaction with leisure activities are analyzed. Based on the results of the study, the authors conclude that young people are dissatisfied with leisure activities in their village. On the one hand, young people attribute this to material opportunities (high payment for entertainment services), and, on the other, the passivity of young people themselves (it should be "someone," and not themselves).

    pdf 208-214.pdf  (272 Kb)

  • Khunagov R.D., Nekhay V.N.
    Overview of the All-Russian Scientific Conference "Youth in a Transforming Society: Present and the Future". Maykop, December 8-10, 2020

    The problem of analyzing the process of socialization, the formation of life strategies and value orientations of young people in the context of a socio-cultural transition has undeniable relevance. In the modern world, the mechanisms of social positioning are constantly being updated, and therefore the task of successfully integrating young people into the system of status-role dispositions is much more complicated. For this reason, there is a need to find relevant ways to diagnose the current problems of Russian youth, as well as an effective methodological tool for determining the prospects for its development in a transforming society. For the purpose of sociological understanding of the indicated topics, the work of the All-Russian Conference "Youth in a Transforming Society: Present and the Future" was organized at the Adyghe State University. The event included a plenary session and two breakout sessions where a wide range of issues were discussed. Particular attention of scientists was focused on analysis of dynamics of sociocultural (traditional, modern and post-modern) challenges and risks to the younger generation, peculiarities of transformation of value orientations of modern youth in conditions of distribution of network communications, prospects of modernization of the higher education system in the context of post-traditional reality. Based on the results of the conference, practical recommendations were made to the authorities and educational institutions aimed at improving the youth policy in the field of education at the federal, regional and municipal levels.

    pdf 215-220.pdf  (119 Kb)