The Bulletin of the Adyghe State University,<br />
the series “Region Studies: Philosophy, History, Sociology, Jurisprudence, Political Sciences and Culturology” The Bulletin of the Adyghe State University,
the series “Region Studies: Philosophy, History, Sociology, Jurisprudence, Political Sciences and Culturology”
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#2 / 2020

History

  • Bagdasaryan S.D., Kashirina T.V.
    HISTORY OF THE INTERNATIONAL TRIBUNAL

    The second half of the 20th century was the time of the development of international law institutions for modern civilization, which are the subject of discussion about their purpose and the results of activities in international relations to protect the world from the recurrence of world conflict of the scale of the Second World War. The history of international relations did not know the application of the procedure of criminal prosecution, granting the right to defense to war criminals with the presumption of innocence until the Nuremberg trial. The international trial provided the world public with an opportunity to consider in public the war crimes of the Second World War committed against man and entire peoples. The subject of the study is the International Tribunal as an institution for the consideration and conviction of crimes against humanity. The importance of the International Tribunal in summing up the results and lessons of World War II for world civilization is studied. The functional purpose of the International Tribunal for the development of inter-state relations is considered in historical perspective. The purpose of the study is to analyze the International Tribunal as a tool for regulating international relations and to implement the main task of the research: to analyze the historical role of the International Tribunal after the Second World War for the protection of peace. The main research methods are comparative-historical and comparative-legal, which make it possible to trace the influence of the International Tribunal on the state of international relations. The conclusion is made about the political, legal and historical significance of the activities of international tribunals in summing up the first results of the Second World War.

    pdf 15-21.pdf  (127 Kb)

  • Barazbiev M.I., Begeulov R.M.
    NEOPHYTIC CHRISTIANS IN THE SOCIO-CONFESSIONAL STRUCTURE OF THE KARACHAY-BALKARIAN SOCIETY IN THE 19TH CENTURY

    The article addresses issues related to religious conversion (transition from Islam to Christianity) of certain groups, families, personalities in the Karachay-Balkarian environment in the 19th century. The causes of cristionising are analyzed, and the number, social status of converts, their confessional resistance, and attitude towards them from the dominant part of society are demonstrated. The work also addresses certain aspects of the state policy of the Russian Empire aimed at initiating and supporting religious-conversion sentiments among non-Christian ethnic communities in the Caucasus. The publication shows that during the period under review, the religious conversion of the elite of the Karachay-Balkarian society was supported by the tsarist administration and church hierarchs. It is concluded that the adoption of Christianity by representatives of the Karachay-Balkarian society was carried out under the influence of the active missionary activities of the Russian Orthodox Church in the region, as well as through the entry of Karachays and Balkarians into marriages with representatives of the Orthodox denomination. However, strengthening the position of Islam in the ethnosocial space of the region in the 19th century minimized the prospects for the further Christanization of the Karachay-Balkarian society.

    pdf 22-33.pdf  (196 Kb)

  • Ivashchenko A.S.
    DISCUSSION ISSUES OF THE HISTORY OF THE GREAT PATRIOTIC WAR OF 1941-1945 IN RUSSIAN HISTORIOGRAPHY

    It would seem that after three quarters of the century, issues of the history of the Great Patriotic War will be perceived both by the scientific community of domestic historians and by the wide circles of the Russian public more academically and calmly. However, the realities of the development of relations between Russia and European countries and the United States in the second decade of the 21st century, the aggravation of wars of historical memory in recent years do not give rise to such hopes. The article, based on the analysis of the works of Russian historians of the late twentieth and early twenty-first centuries, identifies and discusses some controversial issues of the history of the Great Patriotic war, in particular, the reasons of defeats of the Red Army in the first months of the war; the ratio of the number of troops and military equipment before the war in the border districts; the level of combat readiness of the Red Army in 1941; the effects of repression at the command of the Red Army in the prewar period on the level of its fighting capacity in the war; problems of captivity in all its aspects; civilian collaboration, etc. The study of the above range of discussion issues on the history of the Great Patriotic War in Russian historiography suggests the presence of a considerable number of significantly different points of view. The disputes of domestic historians, in particular, on the quantitative parameters of these problems, in our opinion, are explained not only by various calculation methods, partly by the protection of departmental interests, but also by the lack of comprehensive statistical data. Obviously, it could not have been in a different way, given the scale of the tests to which the Soviet Union was subjected in 1941-1945.

    pdf 34-43.pdf  (156 Kb)

  • Matveev O.V.
    RUSSIANS (The materials for the Encyclopedia "Peoples and Cultures of the Kuban")

    The article is a material for the forthcoming encyclopedic publication on ethnos and ethnic groups of the Krasnodar Territory. The author traces the formation of ethnographic groups of Russians, adaptation into the ethnocultural space of the region, a change of identities, and features of cultural heritage in the 19th-20th centuries. The expansion of the ethnocultural influence of Russians on the development of the region is noted to take place with the active support of the Russian government. At the same time, the Kuban Cossack army successfully realized the strategic task of the military-political and cultural advancement of Russia's national interests in the Kuban. However, the social confrontation caused by the Civil War, repressions, expulsions, and famine of 1932-1933 led to a reduction in the number and ethnic status of the Kuban Cossacks in the region. The article also reveals the peculiarities of the formation and development of the ethno-territorial and ethno-confessional structure of the Russian society of the Kuban and the Black Sea region. The dynamics of transformation of ethnodemographic processes in the region are analyzed in detail. It is concluded that under conditions of the worsening demographic crisis and the deformation of the ethnoidentification matrix, a need arises to turn to the constructive experience of traditional society.

    pdf 44-57.pdf  (264 Kb)

  • Rakachev V.N.
    KOREAN ETHNIC COMMUNITY IN THE KUBAN REGION: FEATURES OF FORMATION AND DEVELOPMENT (The materials for the Encyclopedia "Peoples and Cultures of the Kuban")

    The article presents materials on the history of formation and development of the Korean ethnic community in the Krasnodar region. This material was prepared as part of an encyclopedic publication devoted to ethnic groups and communities of the Krasnodar Territory. The material contains information on the history of the resettlement of Koreans to the Kuban, territorial distribution in the region, demographic dynamics, ethnocultural characteristics (language, traditions and customs, material and spiritual culture), modern ethnocultural organization, etc. By the beginning of the 21st century, the ethnic community of Koreans is noted to be able to successfully integrate into the cultural and socio-economic life of the region. The subject of this study is also the study of mechanisms for preserving the ethnocultural identity of Koreans, as well as measures of state and regional support for the development of Korean culture. It is concluded that during the period under review, the Korean population of the Krasnodar Territory has an increase in national identity, manifested in the revival of national culture, the native language and the preservation of historical memory. The article was prepared on the basis of documents and materials of central and regional archives, a significant part of which is introduced into scientific circulation for the first time.

    pdf 58-65.pdf  (210 Kb)

  • Kharitonov E.M., Koshokova S.Ya.
    HISTORIOGRAPHY OF LIFE AND CREATIVITY OF SH. NOGMOV: BASIC VECTORS OF DEVELOPMENT

    To date, there are many studies devoted to the life and work of the first Adyghe historian Sh. Nogmov. His creativity and activities are multifaceted, therefore they are studied by specialists of different sciences. This article presents an overview of the experience of studying the life and work of Sh. Nogmov. The beginning of the study is noted to be laid in pre-revolutionary historiography. Sh. Nogmov's first biographer was his publisher A.P. Bergers, largely determined the further direction of the study of this issue. But the development of the problems planned by Bergers fully began only in the 1940s. The authors identified the main directions in the development of the study devoted to Sh. Nogmov: biographical, philological, folklore, historical, socio-political and educational. In the framework of historical area, the source base study of "The History of the Adyghe People" is allocated. Within each direction, the most developed problems and issues requiring further study are identified. Controversial are, for example, such issues as the attitude of Sh. Nogmov to Christianity, the fact of his acquaintance with A.S. Pushkin and M.Yu. Lermontov. The researchers who have made the greatest contribution to the development of this direction are also indicated. The authors emphasize that the generalization of such a number of publications, of course, is conditional. Many studies are difficult to attribute to only one of the highlighted areas, most often they cover several of them or even all. In addition, the analysis of the historiographical review undertaken by S.N. Zhemukhov is given. He distinguishes memoir, historical, philological, critical and philosophical directions. The authors of this article emphasize that the allocation of the memoir direction by S.N. Zhemukhov is not sufficiently justified. The creators of the memoirs did not set the goal to study personality and views of Sh.B. Nogmov, they recorded their impressions and reflections, so the memoirs are only one source of Sh.B. Nogmov’s research, but not one of directions of its development.

    pdf 66-72.pdf  (129 Kb)

  • Khuako Z.Yu., Zhade Z.A.
    THE MOVEMENT OF WORKERS’ AND RURAL CORRESPONDENTS OF THE SOVIET PERIOD IN RUSSIAN JOURNALISM AS A SOCIO-HISTORICAL AND SOCIOCULTURAL PHENOMENON

    The relevance of this study lies in the social nature of the emergence and development of the printed word, periodicals, journalism, the media and communication. The social nature of the periodical press implies mass media, the presence of a developed, mature, nationally (state) oriented social base. The social nature of the press, especially at the beginning of its development, is characterized by the emergence of visible elements of civil society in it. In the modern world, the importance of information, means of information influence of various nature on the population is growing. Naturally, with creation of political parties, the approval of ideological diversity and change of economic formation of society, periodicals and journalism lose the initial functions of informing, dissemination of information, education and upbringing and turn into means of opposition, distortion of historic facts and events, conducting hybrid (dirty) wars, processings public consciousness, introduction of numerous phobias including russophobia, and throw-in of false (fake) news. In this regard, it is important to consider all events (heroic and tragic) of the twentieth century in Russia as an organic part of national (domestic) history. This is also directly related to the history of Soviet journalism, as well as the emergence and development of the mass movement of workers’ and rural (public) correspondents. This unique phenomenon should be assessed as a socio-historical and sociocultural phenomenon. Suffice it to say that the movement of workers’ and rural correspondents in the Soviet periodicals numbered about seven million representatives of all segments of the population - workers, peasants, scientists, teachers, doctors, cultural workers, military personnel, students and pupils. Moreover, two thirds of them were in Russia.

    pdf 73-85.pdf  (199 Kb)

  • Schneider W.G.
    SOCIO-DEMOGRAPHIC PROBLEMS OF DEPORTED PEOPLES OF THE NORTH CAUCASUS (MID-1940S TO MID-1950S)

    The article is devoted to the study of the process of social adaptation of Chechens, Ingush, Karachays and Balkars during their stay in exile in Kazakhstan and Kyrgyzstan (mid-1940s to mid-1950s). The publication analyzes data on the employment of special settlers in agriculture and industry, their living conditions in exile, and a survival strategy. Based on the analysis of secondary empirical materials, the author characterizes the perception by deported people of labor conditions created in special settlements. The problems of demography of deported peoples are considered separately, the dynamics of the change in the ratio of fertility and mortality are revealed, and the impact of deportation and exile on the institution of family and marriage is analyzed. The author notes that the peoples of the North Caucasus during the period of deportation showed a high level of survival in extreme conditions. This is evidenced by the fact of an increase in the number of Karachays, Balkars, Chechens and Ingush. It is concluded that complex social, demographic and economic problems which the deported people of the North Caucasus during the considered period faced became a factor of their unity and adaptation to extreme living conditions.

    pdf 86-91.pdf  (119 Kb)

    Sociology

  • Bredichin S.N., Serebryakova S.V., Likhovid A.A.
    DYNAMICS IN GENDER ROLES PERCEPTION: A COMPARATIVE STUDY BETWEEN USA AND RUSSIA

    This article discusses the dynamics of gender processes in modern society, as exemplified by the United States and Russia. As a starting point in gender studies, this article discusses trends in the perception of gender roles and the stereotypes assigned to them, as well as their implementation within the framework of the institution of the family. The article also considers factors that ensure the cultural conditionality of this phenomenon, as well as specific features in the perception of gender roles that are characteristic of the United States and Russia. The authors emphasize the social nature of gender roles, as well as the fact that changes in their perception are both the cause and effect of the transformations observed in the family institution at the present stage of development of society.

    pdf 92-103.pdf  (207 Kb)

  • Gusarova M.A.
    THE PROBLEM OF LEGAL EDUCATION OF YOUNG PEOPLE AS A FACTOR IN THE FORMATION OF ANTI-TERRORIST ATTITUDES OF LEGAL CONSCIOUSNESS IN CONTEMPORARY RUSSIAN SOCIETY

    The article considers the problem of legal education of the young generation of Russians. The relevance of the high level of legal awareness and the legal culture of citizens in the modern conditions of the formation of civil society and the rule of law is emphasized. Particular attention is focused on the issue of the value of law and order and security in society, in connection with which it is emphasized that young people undergoing an active phase of socialization are at risk. Taking into account a number of factors leading to the exposure of young people to the influence of terrorist ideology, the author concludes that, along with measures of an organizational and legal nature, of importance is ideological influence on young people by cultivating moral and legal values traditional for the domestic legal space and derived from them - attitudes of tolerance, moral and legal autonomy of the individual, intransigence with evil and violence. The author notes that the need for interaction between the state and civil society institutions, whose joint efforts require the formation of positive content as a way to prevent the influence of terrorist ideology, is being updated at present. At the same time, the Internet and popular messengers should become the main channel for a positive impact on the legal awareness of young people.

    pdf 104-109.pdf  (124 Kb)

  • Zhade Z.A., Imgrunt S.I., Samygin P.S.
    TRANSPARENCY OF POWER IN NEW GLOBAL RISK CONDITIONS

    The article analyzes the peculiarities of interaction between authorities and society in Russia in the face of the immediate global risk caused by the COVID-19 pandemic. Particular attention is paid to the importance of creating transparency of power in crisis conditions. The authors note that building an effective interaction between society and state power provides for the formation of an effective system for informing and protecting the interests of citizens affected by the crisis and various restrictive measures introduced to counter the spread of mass infection. Transparency of power is defined as a state of high awareness of the activities of public authorities at all levels, contributing to the formation of a sense of citizen ownership of state policies, a high level of trust in power institutions. Given the emergence of a new global risk that is causing a deep socio-economic crisis, the primary responsibility lies with national States, both to counter the spread of the pandemic and to minimize the impact of the crisis. It is important to build an effective interaction between State authorities and society, to create an effective system for protecting the interests of representatives of various social groups and strata. It is concluded that transparency of the State power, as an integral condition of its effective functioning in contemporary conditions, provides for openness and transparency of the power, together with an adequate information policy of the latter, based on clear and consistent information of the population about the activities carried out by various State bodies.

    pdf 110-117.pdf  (199 Kb)

  • Zhuikov A.A., Kasparov A.R.
    UNRELIABLE REPORTS OF CORONAVIRUS EPIDEMIC IN INTERNET COMMUNICATION SPACE AS A FACTOR OF SOCIAL DESTABILIZATION

    In modern society, the audience of the global computer network Internet is increasing every year, and its influence on mass consciousness is growing. Internet communication has a direct impact on people's behavior, their social well-being, and the system of value and worldview coordinates. In this aspect, the modern global network does not differ from mass media in terms of basic translational characteristics. That is why the quality of information and the social responsibility of Internet communicators are important. In this regard, the article analyzes the features of perception of inaccurate reports about the nature of the spread of the coronavirus epidemic in the modern Internet space. The publication shows that information about coronavirus infection is alarming and does not fully arouse confidence from the audience. At the same time, the results of the author's study confirm the high degree of deterministic behavior of the population by the nature of the circulation of alarmist information messages on the Internet. It is concluded that in order to reduce the destructive influence of unreliable messages in the Russian communication space, it is necessary to strengthen control over the Internet content by online media, management structures and the general public.

    pdf 118-124.pdf  (125 Kb)

  • Krylov D.S.
    DOMESTIC VIOLENCE IN CONTEMPORARY RUSSIAN SOCIETY: SOCIOLOGICAL AND CRIMINOLOGICAL ASPECT

    The article is devoted to the study of conflicts in family and marriage relations from the point of view of sociological and criminological approaches. In the study, the author assesses not only the obvious and quite apparent threats caused by insufficient mechanisms of influence on the facts of domestic violence, but also argues his position in assessing the danger of hidden (latent) risks within the present problem. The history of scientific development of the declared problem is considered, as a result of which the author concludes that the subject is interdisciplinary. The article analyzes legislative instruments for the prevention of domestic violence, examines the evolution of its legal and regulatory formation. The researcher also proposes an assessment of scientific approaches to determining the types of the present phenomenon, and formulates the main factors that provoke the development of domestic violence in contemporary Russian society. The article consistently highlights the existing threats related to the problems of domestic violence. The main consequences are the permanent risks of the life and health of members of the family, as well as the global challenges associated with changing the mental state of the future generation, its development and legal consciousness. In the course of the study, the author used data from the official statistics of the Ministry of Internal Affairs of the Russian Federation for 2019. Based on this data, the author examines the criminological component of the problem of domestic violence and the degree of development of threats and risks that have a negative impact on the level of stability and security of the modern world space.

    pdf 125-130.pdf  (122 Kb)

  • Khàtit F.R., Poddubnaya T.N., Zadneprovskaya E.L.
    STALKER TOURISM DEVELOPMENT TRENDS AMONG YOUNG PEOPLE IN THE CONTEXT OF SOCIOLOGICAL RESEARCH

    The article reveals the main characteristics of the development of stalker tourism among young people. The purpose of the study is to reveal the development trends of stalker tourism among young people, as a popular and promising area of youth tourism. Research objectives are to clarify the concept of "stalker tourism", to study its types; substantiate the popularity of this type of tourism among young people, present a portrait of its potential consumer; and to study the interest of young people in stalker tourism basing on a sociological survey. The research methods included the theoretical (selection and analysis of sources, axiomatic method, hypothetical method, forecasting, formalization, abstraction, logical methods (analysis, synthesis, analogy, generalization) and empirical (survey, graphical data presentation methods) ones. As a result of research the essence of stalker tourism is revealed, its types are described; the reason for its popularity among young people and the category of its potential consumers are substantiated; Based on a sociological research, the interest of young people in stalker tourism was studied. Key findings of the research are as follows: (1) stalking is a relatively innovative field of tourism, so not everyone is fully aware of its meaning; stalker tourism involves visiting abandoned places (sometimes unfinished) for industrial and civil purposes; Varieties of stalker tourism are classic stalking (visiting abandoned, old sites); diggerstvo (visiting bunkers, metro ghost stations); Roofing (walks on the roofs); post-pilgrimage (visiting abandoned places of worship); infiltration (penetration into protected military and industrial facilities, not designed for people to stay); (2) the popularity of stalker tourism among young people is due to the desire of young people to get thrills, adventures, as well as relatively good physical shape; (3) the sociological study showed the relative demand for stalker tourism among modern youth, the desire of young travelers for an active holiday full of exciting events and adventures, which determines the need for the development and formation of proposals for specialized stalker tours in the modern tourist market.

    pdf 131-139.pdf  (554 Kb)

  • Cherkasova T.V.
    BASHKIR STUDENTS OF THE BASIC UNIVERSITY: REGIONAL SOCIOLOGICAL PORTRAIT - 2019

    The article provides an analysis of the life plans of Bashkir students. Bashkirs are a title population that plays an important role in the social structure of the youth society of Bashkortostan. Traditional value orientations of Bashkir students are formed under the influence of a multinational environment. Bashkir young people are an active subject of social reproduction and dynamic interethnic relations. Analysis of life plans chosen by Bashkir youth in a dynamically changing multicultural space (taking into account regional specifics) allows you to plan mobility, innovative trends or control deviant processes taking place in youth society. The work presents the results of recent comprehensive studies (2019) conducted among students of the Basic University of the Republic of Bashkortostan (RB), aimed at identifying the ethnic characteristics and features of the perception of Bashkir students compared to Russian and Tatar students. The results obtained made it possible to form ideas about the self-identification national characteristics of regional Bashkir youth, identify common strategies for the self-realization of members of the socio-ethnic community under consideration, analyze postgraduate plans in vital areas of activity, and compare the structure of value orientations of Bashkir youth with Russian and Tatar youth in the face of modern challenges. The author concluded that Bashkir students have a tendency to preserve traditional guidelines governing interethnic relations in the Republic of Bashkortostan: the life attitudes of Bashkir students are based on the national mentality and adequately reflect the features of intergenerational, intergender, interethnic relations in Russian society. Bashkir students fulfill their integration, historical and cultural mission. Petroleum University students plan to take care of their parents, create their families with children, open a business and engage in scientific and innovative activities.

    pdf 140-150.pdf  (180 Kb)

    Culturology

  • Katanchiev Z.M.
    MULTIVARIANCE OF GENDER SOCIOROLE RELATIONS IN CONTEXT OF CULTURAL PARADIGM SHIFT: BASED ON MATERIAL OF ADYG CULTURE (CIRCASSIANS)

    This article deals with the problem of the dependence of gender relations in society on the confessional and historical context. This problem has been little studied and needs further investigation. The main focus here is on the influence of Islam on the formation of a new type of gender relations in Adyg society and, as a result, their manifestation in everyday life, traditional and post-traditional culture. Based on a retrospective analysis of the spiritual life of the Adygs, the author gives a generalized description of the main rituals preserved in their everyday culture and reveals the processes of interaction between religious culture and ethnic cultural substrate. In particular, it is noted that the adoption of Islam transformed not only the nature of sociorole relations between a man and a woman, but also the ritual system of the Adygs. However, if in the funeral rite the Muslim canon turned out to be dominant, then in the wedding rite its influence was limited only to the procedure for registering a marriage contract. It is concluded that in the process of Islamization of the North Caucasus, there was no complete deconstruction of traditional gender relations in Adyg society.

    pdf 151-156.pdf  (121 Kb)

  • Ponomareva Yu.A.
    HISTORICAL PSEUDOMORPHOSIS: OPPORTUNITIES AND PERSPECTIVES

    The author of the article actualizes the O. Spengler’s concept of historical pseudomorphosis and considers it as an object of study. Historical pseudomorphosis is interpreted as a specific form of interaction of cultures, and plays one of the leading roles in the process of historical development of Russia. The subject of the study is the historical pseudomorphosis of Russia. The purpose of the article is as follows: after analyzing the Russian historical path through the prism of this concept, the author gives answers to questions: what are pseudomorphoses for a perceptive culture - success or failure? Is it possible to harmoniously develop a culture that has undergone historical pseudomorphoses? Answering these questions, the author concludes that the result of the influence of pseudomorphoses on culture directly depends on the degree of assimilation and transformation to the needs of the recipient culture of borrowed meanings and contents. It is argued that historical pseudomorphoses, causing destructive changes in various sociocultural systems, can also generate constructive transformations that affect all spheres of life of Russian society and increase its level of adaptation to a globalizing world.

    pdf 157-162.pdf  (132 Kb)

    Reviews

  • Nekhay V.N.
    REVIEW OF THE COLLECTIVE MONOGRAPH "GENDER DETERMINATION BY ETHNIC FACTOR: CAUCASUS DISCOURSE. M.: SPUTNIK + PUBLISHING HOUSE, 2019. 134 P." Team of authors: Kh.G. Tkhagapsoev, A.Yu. Shadzhe, N.A. Ilyinova, E.S. Kukva, Z.Ch.Taukanova. Monograph is rec

    The peer-reviewed monograph analyzes the features of the evolution and development of gender relations in the North Caucasus. By using an interdisciplinary approach in understanding the causal conditionality of gender transformations, the author's team identified universal and specific factors that determine the transformation of gender in the socio-historical space of the region. Through the reconstruction of the experience of gender interactions in traditional North Caucasus society, the most stable stereotypes of their representation in a globalizing world are identified. Ethnic identity is the main determinant of maintaining the authenticity of gender models that reproduce moral and institutional norms. The latter is responsible for the "positive" preservation of the basic elements of ethnogender communications, among which the sectoral structure of the ethnic community, the "vector orientation of marriage," the sacralization of the status dominance of the "elder" and the prohibition of sexual marriage through blood-related relations are distinguished. However, the profound changes in regional society caused by the forced export of Western values, the marginalization of the relationship between men and women, the total feminization of all spheres of social life provoked a gender inversion. It radically modified the system of status-role dispositions of ethnic groups of the North Caucasus and turned into an instrument for their adaptation to the dynamics of post-modern transformations.

    pdf 163-166.pdf  (113 Kb)