Address: 385000, Maikop, Adyghea Republic, Pervomayskaya Street, House 208. Ph.: 8(8772) 52 48 55
#3 / 2020
Bagdasaryan S.D., Samsonenko T.A.
STATE POLICY IN THE NORTH CAUCASUS DURING THE SECOND HALF OF THE 19TH – EARLY 20TH CENTURIES
The article presents a comprehensive historical and legal research devoted to the study of the features of the state integration of the North Caucasus into the Russian Empire. In this regard, the problems of finding the optimal administrative-territorial structure and management used by the Russian state during the second half of the 19th – early 20th centuries are investigated, and the relationship between the main stages of colonization and forms of management is shown.
The object of the research is the process of entering the North Caucasus and forming its status in the Russian statehood in the period after the Caucasian war and the beginning of the 20th century. The subject of the research is the state policy of Russia in relation to the North Caucasus region.
The purpose of the study is to identify the features of Russian state policy in the historical period of the Empire's formation in the North Caucasus, on colonization and integration of the territory into the Russian statehood. In accordance with the purpose of the study, its tasks were also defined: to analyze and systematize the main stages of the annexation of the North Caucasus and the results of Russia's state policy by the end of the 19th century; to show the relationship of the main stages of colonization with wars in the Caucasus involving world and regional powers; to analyze the features of the management system conducted by the Russian government in this region.
The methodological basis of the research is based on such General methodological principles of cognition as consistency, historicism, and objectivity. The principle of consistency allowed us to consider the mechanism of state administration and self-government as part of a single process of state-building of the Russian Empire. The principle of historicism contributed to the study of changes in the regional policy of Russia at various stages of development of the state territory.
Within the framework of General scientific principles, a set of private scientific methods of cognition is used, such as: comparative-historical, comparative-typological, problem-chronological, system-structural, logical. The use of various methods made it possible to comprehensively study various aspects of the problem under study.
The conclusion is made about the historical achievements and shortcomings of the management system in the Russian Empire in the North Caucasus.
SYMBOLIC EMPHASIS IN THE CULTURAL LANDSCAPE OF HISTORIC CITY: THE MONUMENT “FRIENDSHIP” IN MAIKOP
The article examines the circumstances of the emergence and existence of an outstanding work of art - the monumental architectural and sculptural composition "Friendship" in Maikop, created upon the project of a prominent Soviet sculptor, master of socialist realism M.G. Manizer and famous architect I.E. Rozhin, with the participation of the sculptor O M. Manizer. The author analyzes the ideological and artistic concept of the monument as a symbol of friendship of peoples, associated with the official myth of the "voluntary entry" of Adyghea into the Russian state - one of the main concepts of the Soviet Union state ideology, and as a manifestation of the state monumental policy. The publication reveals characteristics of a spatial situation and a context of monumental and sculptural composition, a circumstance of creation of Friendship Square and the mini-park and their architectural environment, a role of town-planning accent in space of the settlement of the city of Maikop having the status of historical and in its modern cultural landscape, created by forces of the Adyghe architects and engineers. As conclusions, the fact is stated of transforming the socio-cultural functions of the Friendship monument in terms of ideological purpose and at the same time preserving the artistic and historical value characteristics of the work.
The article was prepared as part of state task to the Southern Branch of D.S. Likhachev Russian Research Institute of Cultural and Natural Heritage on the topic "Monumental policy as a tool for preserving cultural memory".
Burykina L.V., Fedoseeva L.D.
ACTIVITY OF ST. MICHAEL'S MONASTERY IN THE MIRROR OF MISSIONARY SERVICE IN THE NORTH CAUCASUS IN THE 1870S–THE BEGINNING OF THE 20TH CENTURY
There is urgent need to study the experience of implementing the state confessional policy in one of the most multi-ethnic and multi-confessional regions of Russia. And this fact causes the necessity to form a favorable ground for inter-ethnic, inter-confessional and inter-cultural dialogue at all historical stages of the development of Russian society. The paper examines the peculiarities of the missionary activity of the Russian Orthodox Church in the North-Western Caucasus in the 70-s of the 19th century – the beginning of the 20th century. The confessional policy of tsarism, focused on the interpolation of the North Caucasus, inhabited by representatives of various ethno-confessional communities, into a unitary social and economic and social and cultural locum of the Russian Empire, provided for the use, among other things, methods of missionary activity as well. Missionary priests played a significant role in establishing inter-ethnic relations, produced certain mechanisms and forms of interaction with the autochthonous population of the region. The paper reveals that almost all clergymen performed missionary work. The main forms of missionary service were educational, charitable and economic activities. The organization of a home for the elderly and sick retired soldiers, the creation of parish schools, the training of qualified artisans needed in the monastery courtyard, treatment and assistance to the local population - all this and much more the monks considered their direct business. Missionary activity developed in the context of the geopolitical and socio-economic characteristics of the region, taking into account the fact that the presence of Christianity and Islam in this territory had a long established tradition and practice of living together. The authors note that the efficiency and productivity of missionary activity was the higher, the further it shifted from intolerance towards a respectful attitude towards all confessions.
ANTHROPOLOGY OF THE CHECHEN INTERNAL ARMED CONFLICT: DEMOGRAPHIC LOSSES
Based on a long-term study (CTO)of wars and conflicts in the South Russia, the article presents the main demographic losses of the post-Soviet period. Special attention is paid to the demographic cost of the two stages of the Chechen internal armed conflict (1994-1996 and 1999-2000 / 2009, if we consider the completion of the counter-terrorism operation (CTO) removal, then 2009). In the evolution of the CTO, three main periods were recorded: 1) a combined-arms army operation (1999-2001), 2) comprehensive counter-terrorism activities (2002-2005); 3) a set of local CTOs (since 2006). For certain reasons, post-Soviet conflicts do not allow using a wide range of sources, among which archival documents could be key. Therefore, it is proposed to refer to the sources on the anthropology of the conflict, which are not only Russian-language works, but foreign complex studies. Due to the lack of sources and (or) the possible unreliability of the information they contain, researchers often resort to calculated estimates. In particular, the article examines the conclusions of the Swedish Scientist K. Zürcher. It is concluded that it is necessary to study and compare various sources to form a holistic understanding of the conflict in the maximum completeness of its manifestations.
CONCEPTS OF WAR AND MILITARY SERVICE IN THE WORLD’S LANGUAGE PICTURE OF THE DON COSSACKS
The article deals with fragments of the folk Cossacks picture of the world associated with the military sphere and their expression in the dialect of the Don Cossacks. The formation of the Cossacks as an ethno-social group took place in the conditions of the Wild Field when the military campaigns were not only a need to defend their territory, but also a way of obtaining a livelihood, and later service in the tsarist army became the main occupation of the Cossacks, therefore, ideas about military activity penetrate into different parts of the Cossacks' traditional culture and are reflected in linguistic means. The most significant motives of the Cossacks’ military culture were expressed in their semantics, principles of nomination, and internal form. The transformation of the military sphere, which took place in different periods of the Cossack history, as well as general trends in the evolution of linguistic semantics has caused changes in the lexical-semantic group associated with the military activities of Cossacks. The lexemes, which denote the disappeared realities, have gone out of active use. The development of a number of Cossack words semantics, which originally related to the military sphere, followed the path of expansion: they begin to be used to name the realities of peaceful life, while the “military” meaning often disappears from active existence.
ATTITUDE TOWARDS THE WATER IN TRADITIONAL AND MODERNIZED SOCIETIES: EVIDENCE FROM THE NORTH CAUCASUS PEOPLE'S CULTURE OF THE 19TH-EARLY 21ST CENTURIES
The article examines the attitude towards the water in the traditional culture of the North Caucasus peoples and in the culture of a modern modernized society. Relevance of the topic is determined by the problems of changing the tradition by the new condition of culture in society, which are arising in the present and opposing traditions. The object of consideration is the emergence of a modernized state of the culture of the regional community, the object is a kind of antithesis to the cultural and historical heritage, largely rejected as a result of technological progress and the process of developing the comfort of life. The subject of research is the cultural changes that occurred during the modernization of the regional community of the North Caucasus peoples in the use of water substances while maintaining the natural and physical properties of water. As a result of comparing the two types of attitude to this natural substance, a conclusion is drawn about the difference in the approaches of the traditional and modernized regional communities to the spatial structure of the Image of the World. In traditional society, the culture of space formation had the opposition of dwelling zones and zones of water sources, developing this distance by means of sacralizing water resources. The sacred ideas about water and the use of mediator objects in rituals of calling the rain and water carrying did not diminish, but developed this opposition. Water entered the home space as part of the cultivated natural world. Technological modernization, creating water pipelines reaching home space and significantly facilitating the process of water consumption, destroyed the aforementioned opposition of cultural space and ensured the complete desacralization of the water substance.
“TO TALK FUGITIVES FROM THE MOUNTAIN DISTRICTS TO REPORT TO THE AUTHORITY WITH CONFESS...”: MEASURES OF THE RUSSIAN AUTHORITIES TO KEEP UNDER BRIGANDAGE AND ROBBERIES IN THE NORTH-WEST CAUCASUS IN THE SECOND HALF OF 1860S
The article reveals the peculiarities of the Russian administration efforts in the North-West Caucasus, aimed at overcoming the criminal situation in the region and eliminating the consequences of the military-political confrontation of the first half of the 19th century. The publication shows the measures, aimed at combating abreks, of whose actions the entire population suffered, regardless of their ethnic and religious affiliation. The circumstances of building a dialogue between the imperial power and the hakuchi society, which for a long time did not want to leave their inaccessible places of residence and provided asylum to antisocial elements, are examined. The author gives examples of actions by the authorities to seize weapons from the population, which was considered as a mandatory measure to prevent the growth of violence in these places. Evidence is revealed that on many issues the interests of the tsarist government and the highlanders coincided, and they repeatedly resolved the existing problems through joint efforts. Examples of both power and quite peaceful methods of keeping under brigandage and robberies in the Kuban region are demonstrated. The combination of these actions, the flexible approach practiced by the imperial authorities, on the whole made it possible to solve the problem of suppressing criminal manifestations in the region and create the conditions for carrying out reforms related to the abolition of serfdom.
THE MILITARY GEOGRAPHER M.I. VENYUKOV (1832-1901) AND HIS EXPLORING PRACTICES IN THE NORTH-WEST CAUCASUS
The article examines one of the episodes in the creative activity of the military geographer and traveller M.I. Venyukov and analyzes his research practices in the North-Western Caucasus in the early 1860s, when, on duty, he was sent to the region to participate in the final operations of the Caucasian War. Dwelling upon the memoirs of a military researcher and the creative heritage left by him, the author shows his contribution to the geographical, ethnographic, and historical study of the territories in the Trans-Kuban region recently annexed to Russia.
M.I. Venyukov carried out his researches on his own initiative and in his free time from official duties. At the same time, the higher command not only did not interfere with such activities but in every possible way supported it. Based on his personal observations, documents found in local military archives and a few printed publications M.I. Venyukov managed to prepare a number of articles that summarized information about geography, ethnography, and the recent history of vast spaces stretching between the Kuban and Belaya rivers, as well as to the west from the Belaya river to the Black Sea. As shown in the article, the map of these territories compiled by the researcher was the first experience in creating an ethnographic map of this part of the Caucasus. The author concludes that the research initiatives of M.I. Venyukov was not only of practical importance, helping to organize the settlement of the Trans-Kuban region, but also formed the scientific basis for the further development of Caucasus studies in Russia.
ORTHODOX COMMUNITIES OF KARACHAY-CHERKESSIA AT THE PRESENT STAGE
In the multicultural society of the Karachay-Cherkess Republic, religion is an important element of ethnocultural identification and an effective factor in ethnic consolidation as well as inter-ethnic confrontation. This article shows the features of the Karachay-Cherkessia Orthodox communities’ development in 2011-2020, the system of republic’s Orthodox communities management, the quantitative and qualitative characteristics of the clergy and parishioners corps, the features of religious life, as well as the impact of the pandemic on the activities of Orthodox religious organizations. Field data collected by the author, Internet resources of Orthodox organizations, media materials, and documents from the author's personal archive have become the source base of the research. The article concludes that the consequence of the structural and personnel changes at the level of the diocese and deaneries was the activation of religious life in the region. Meanwhile, the increase in attributed parishes on the territory of the republic made it difficult to form stable intra-parish relations in the newly formed communities.
FEATURES OF THE SPIRITUAL GOVERNANCE OF THE MUSLIM POPULATION RESIDING IN NORTH CAUCASIAN REGION OF THE RUSSIAN EMPIRE IN THE SECOND HALF OF THE 19TH AND THE EARLY 20TH CENTURY
Russian Islam as a legacy of the past remains largely unexplored to this day. The existence of this integration outcome manifested itself repeatedly with the emergence of external or internal threats. A significant contribution to its formation was also made by the Muslim clergy, among whom, just like among the believers, separatist sentiments were not the ones that prevailed. The patriotic potential of Russian Islam in the North Caucasus also manifested itself during the crisis periods in the history of the homeland. The organization of spiritual administration for the Muslim population of the North Caucasian outskirts also absorbed the general orientation, as well as other integral features of the Russian policy established in the second half of the 19th and in the early 20th century, directed towards the development of the integration process. At the same time, inter-confessional and civilizational convergence was achieved.
EXPERIENCES OF NEIGHBORHOOD IN THE POPULAR HISTORICAL REPRESENTATIONS OF THE RUSSIAN-ADYGHE BORDERLAND POPULATION
The article, on the basis of field data collected in the Krasnogvardeysky, Shovgenovsky, Koshehablsky districts of the Republic of Adyghea and Uspenskiy and Novokubansky districts of Krasnodar territory, explores folk historical beliefs of the Russian-Adyghe borderland. The author concludes that folk ideas about the past solve not only the most important cognitive and educational tasks, but also through the transmission of traditional values, they serve as a powerful means of mutual recognition in the ethno-cultural space of the Russian-Adyghe borderland, and perform integrative functions. A characteristic feature of traditional history is also the tendency to balance different assessments of the past. Awareness of a certain historical and cultural unity, the common fate of our peoples, the need to overcome traces of historical grievances and prejudices are inherent in the majority of border region residents, who continue to hope to remain good countryman and neighbors.
RUSSIAN WARRIORS OF MAGOMET-AMIN
The article is concerned with the role of fugitive soldiers of the Imperial Russian Army, associates in the ranks of the Imam Shamil’s third Naib in the North-West Caucasus Magomet-Amin. In this publication, the author examines the causes and circumstances of the flight of soldiers and the Cossacks outside the Kuban, their social status among the mountaineers, as well as the deserter’s role they played in the detachment of Magomet-Amin.
The military personnel fled to territories beyond the control of the Russian authorities for a variety of reasons: difficult conditions of service, epidemics, and interpersonal conflicts. The article pays individual attention to the fate of deserters who found themselves in the mountains. Trying to find salvation from ills of life there, many of them became slaves among the Adyghes. This phenomenon was mentioned not only by deserters in their testimony but also by foreigners who visited the North-West Caucasus in the middle of the 19th century.
Magomet-Amin offered to Russian deserters freedom in exchange for service. Those who fell into the Naib group became his personal bodyguards, guards in the prisons where the unwanted mountaineers were kept, as well as executioners of the political opponents of chief Mouridism preacher in the region. The article concludes that Adyghes were distrustful to Russian warriors of Magomet-Amin. When an opportunity arose, they handed them over to the tsar's authorities, and after Naib left the mountains outside the Kuban, his detachment was completely destroyed.
ETHNODEMOGRAPHIC DYNAMICS OF THE KUBAN BLACK SEA URBAN SYSTEM (late 19th - early 21th centuries)
The article analyzes the features of the demographic dynamics of the urban centers of the Kuban Black Sea region, changes in the national and gender structure of their population. The study shows that the rapid demographic growth of seaside centers has remained a steady trend over the past 120-150 years. This trend was interrupted only during periods of wars directly affecting the territory of the subregion. The urban centers of the eastern Black Sea region were initially formed as multiethnic communities. But the quantitative dominant of Russians, which was present in them from the first stages of development, remained such throughout the analyzed period, and significantly increased after the assimilation of a significant part of the large Ukrainian population in the 1930s. The main factors of socio-demographic growth in individual Black Sea centers can be industry, transport and trade functions, recreation and resort business. But it was resort specialization that, since the second half of the twentieth century, has allowed coastal cities to achieve the highest and most stable rates of population growth. The evolution of the national structure of the population of the Black Sea regional urban system was significantly influenced by wars and periods of crisis, which changed the main ethno-demographic trends and thereby determined the main stages of this evolutionary process. During the period from 1926 to 2020, the part of the Kuban population concentrated in the cities of the Black Sea region increased from 3.7% to 20.5%. If this trend continues in the medium term, then by 2040–2045 more than a quarter of the region's inhabitants will live there.
STUDY OF THE TRANS-KUBAN REGION IN THE PLANS OF THE SEPARATE CAUCASUS MILITARY CORPSE COMMANDMENT IN THE 1820-1830S
The article is devoted to the research of problems, concerning development by the Russian Caucasian corps commandment of the projects for researching the Trans-Kuban and the Black Sea coast territories, which seemed to be strategically important for the implementation of military-political measures in the region. The purpose of the article is to analyze the problems of the Caucasus territories early research, and the tasks are to study the methods of conducting military intelligence in the region. Its subject was Caucasian studies, and its object was the intelligence operations of the military authorities. Based on archival materials, as well as a number of published sources, the author shows not only the evolution of the St. Petersburg authorities and the Caucasian command theoretical approaches to the development of research projects for the Trans-Kuban region but also the practice of implementing the developed projects on the ground. The article focuses on the fact that approaches to the study of the region have changed as more accurate information about both its topography and the peoples living there was obtained. Starting with openly adventurous plans based only on knowledge gleaned from the works of ancient authors, the Russian authorities gradually came to the idea of the necessity to use trained naval and military department officers to conduct reconnaissance in the strategically important territories of the North-Western Caucasus.
SHAPSUGS IN RUSSIAN HISTORIOGRAPHY OF THE 19TH CENTURY
The purpose of this article is to analyze perceptions of the Shapsugs in books and articles published in Russia in the 19th century. Special works on the history and ethnography of the Shapsugs were not written at that time, but in many books and articles, they were considered as an integral part of the Adygs or the population of the Caucasian Black Sea coast. In most publications, one and the same stereotypes can be identified that applied not only to the Shapsugs but almost all the peoples of the North Caucasus. They were considered primitive or barbarian tribes, their social system was characterized as anarchy, as "wild unlimited freedom", they were accused of addiction to theft and predation and lack of inclination to peaceful agricultural labor. Among their virtues, the mentioned courage noted such patriarchal customs as hospitality or respect for elders.
At the same time, some 19th-century authors studied the lifestyle and culture of the Shapsugs in greater depth and made conclusions that went far beyond the stereotypes mentioned. They described features of the Shapsug’s socio-political structure (familial associations, communities, people’s assemblies), their common law (court of mediators, the coexistence of adat and sharia norms) and their religious beliefs, and (after the Caucasian War) Shapsug’s agriculture.
MAKAEV'S DAGESTAN KIN IN THE ENVIRONMENT OF THE BLACK SEA ADYGS-SHAPSUGS
A distinctive feature of the Black Sea Adyg-Shapsugs settlements from the second half of the 19th - to the middle of the 20th century was the closedness of society from extraneous foreign ethnic ties. However, there are exceptions, some of which are a family of immigrants from Dagestan. Beginning at the end of the 19th century, and significantly intensified at the beginning of the 20th century, migrations of migrant workers from mountainous Dagestan brought jewelers and gunsmiths from the Makaevs and Kadievs clan lines to the auls of the Black Sea Adyg-Shapsugs, where they were married local women. The process of their rapid assimilation is of particular interest for research. The Makaevs and Kadievs, already in the first generation, learned how to make products mixed in style with local cultural and pictorial features and acquired the status of respected residents of the Black Sea Adygs-Shapsugs auls, but at the same time retained a dual ethnic identity. The Makaevs also switched to the Circassian language in everyday communication.
ETHNIC AND CONFESSIONAL INTERACTIONS IN THE KRASNODAR TERRITORY THROUGH THE EYES OF YOUNG PEOPLE (ETHNOSOCIOLOGICAL ASPECT)
The research is relevant for monitoring and regulating inter-ethnic interactions in the youth communities. The purpose of the article is to determine the state and trends in the development of interethnic interactions of young people in the Krasnodar territory. The tasks of the work are to justify the choice of indicators for evaluating interethnic and interfaith interactions, and to make sense of the results of questionnaire surveys in 2017 2019. A fairly high level of inter-group tolerance has been revealed, which is the result of effective social and economic development of the region, as well as state national policy. At the same time, the asymmetry of interethnic and inter-confessional distances and latent conflict in the attitudes of some of youth strata remain. The concentration of risks in interethnic interactions in areas with high density of communication networks (Krasnodar, major cities of the region, the Black Sea coast) is noted. Proposals are formulated to improve the national policy in relation to the region’s youth.
VECTORS OF (DIS)INTEGRATION IN A MULTIETHNIC SOCIETY IN DIRECT GLOBAL RISK
The paper analyzes the impact of direct global risk (coronavirus pandemic COVID-19) on integration and disintegration processes in a multiethnic society. (Dis)Integration means a measure of the integration of heterogeneous active elements in society (institutions, groups, individuals) into a single integrity, a system that arises on the basis of coincidence of goals and interests and contributes to the development of society. An example of the Republic of Adyghea is used to examine the features of a "risk policy" under conditions of a pandemic carried out by regional authorities.
The main blocks of integration and disintegration processes are identified, forming their course in direct risk conditions: Information and Communication, Competence and Trust.
The need for analysis is due to the extremity of the prevailing socio-political and socio-cultural situation, in which the main threat entails a multiplicity of threats and risks transgressed into most areas of society, which have a kind of multiplicative effect in regional society. The need for analysis is also substantiated by the high level of uncertainty in the economy, education, demographics and health care, in which the regional authority must manage risk in the face of increasing expectations from society and, at the same time, the opening horizon of new opportunities that can, with high confidence, strengthen integration; as well as by the high integration potential, which traditionally has in Russian society the phenomenon of "common trouble".
Ilyinova N.A., Khachetsukov Z.M.
HARMONIZATION OF SOCIAL INTERACTION IN CONDITIONS OF ETHNO-CONFESSIONAL PLURALISM
Within the framework of the issues of the II All-Russian Scientific and Practical Forum "Peoples of the Kuban and Adyghea: traditional experience, modern state, and prospects for spiritual integration", the authors examine good-neighborly relations through the prism of confessional affiliation. Throughout the history of mankind, religion has been of great importance in the life of man and society, acting as a spiritual integrator and regulator of social interaction. In modern times, the attitude towards religion has changed significantly. Considering themselves believers, religious people, modern Russians for the most part do not consider it mandatory to systematically perform religious (ritual) practices. This circumstance, according to the authors, contributes to the favorable construction of interfaith interaction. The authors note the historically established dialogue between the ethno-confessional interaction of the Orthodox inhabitants of the Kuban and the Muslim population of Adyghea, which positively affects the building of good-neighborly relations between the peoples of the regions under consideration. The authors believe that the harmonization of social interaction in conditions of ethno-confessional pluralism can be considered a condition for overcoming the crisis of humanity characteristic of the 21st century and increasing the level of national security.
Kukva E.S., Khachetsukov Z.M.
INTERFAITH INTERACTION IN ADYGHEA (ACCORDING TO THE RESULTS OF THE SOCIOLOGICAL SURVEY OF THE MUSLIM POPULATION)
The article analyzes some aspects of interfaith interaction in the Republic of Adyghea, identified on the basis of a sociological survey of Muslims of the Republic, conducted in November-December 2019. The interpretation of interfaith interaction in the region was carried out by representing the representations of the Muslim population. The authors argue that the negative past experience of communication with members of other religions has an impact on the emergence of a stable intolerance against them on the basis of religious affiliation. This applies to the scanty so-called "intolerant wing" with a categorical hostile position (5.3%). Nevertheless, in general, in the massif we should talk about the predominance of tolerance towards "non-believers". The article states that interfaith interaction in Adyghea is manifested in the fact that religious intolerance is poorly expressed, denominations coexist peacefully, and this is due to the established practices of peaceful interfaith interaction, the absence of acute social contradictions in the region, as well as the fact that religiosity is not dominant in regional public consciousness (this dominant is occupied by ethnic identity and the prisms of perception formed on its basis).
CONSTRUCTING A POSITIVE IMAGE OF REGIONS IN THE SPACE OF NEW MEDIA: THE EXPERIENCE OF THE REPUBLIC OF ADYGHEA
The article analyzes the experience of the Republic of Adyghea in constructing the image of the region. In recent years, social networks have become one of the tools for constructing the image of the region, which allow us, on the one hand, to invent and scale new means and methods of positivizing the image of Adyghea. On the other hand, the risks grow in number of spreading negative communication flows through social media. With the development of information and communication technologies, the task of forming and maintaining a positive image of the Republic of Adyghea acquires new content and instrumental features and problems. Mediatization of social relations transforms the configuration of sources and mechanisms for the formation of image characteristics of regions in the collective representations of the population. The discursive nature of the territorial image in modern society shifts research emphasis towards social media, which produces multidirectional (directed/spontaneous), focused on different target audiences (external and internal) and content-variable (negative/positive) communication flows. It is concluded that the active penetration of information and communication technologies in all spheres of modern society has significantly increased the importance of social media in the construction of the region image. Features of the territorial image, purposefully formed and spontaneously formed assessments and opinions, suggest increased attention to information and communication mechanisms for constructing the image of the region.
ADYGHEA POPULATION MIGRATION AS A FACTOR IN THE TRANSFORMATION OF SOCIO-DEMOGRAPHIC BALANCE
For the Russian Federation and most of its regions, to which Adyghea belongs, an imbalance between fertility and mortality is characteristic, namely, a systematic excess of the mortality rate over the birth rate, which acts towards reducing the number of its inhabitants. The only source of population replenishment and achievement of socio-demographic balance is migration movement, the relevance and significance of study of which are increasing. The object of the research is the population of the Republic of Adyghea, and the subject is modern migration processes. The purpose of the study is to analyze the migration movement of the population of Adyghea as a factor in the transformation of socio-demographic equilibrium. The article implements such tasks as analyzing the dynamics of the migration movement of the republic and determining the main trends of their development, the specifics of manifestation in urban and rural areas, identifying the impact on the demographic development and socio-demographic balance of the region.
On the basis of materials from state statistics, the article shows that a stable trend of migration growth has developed in the republic, which not only compensates for the natural losses of the population but also exceeds them. As a result, at present, the Republic of Adygea is one of the few Russian regions with stable population growth, both in urban and rural areas. The trend towards an increase in natural decline that has emerged in recent years gives grounds to assume that the role of migration in maintaining the socio-demographic balance of the republic will increase.
COOPERATION BETWEEN THE PEOPLES OF ADYGHEA AND KRASNODAR TERRITORY UNDER RISK
The paper examines the peculiarities of the historically established cooperation between the peoples of the Krasnodar Territory and the Republic of Adyghea in the presence of risk. Positive experience in formation of civil consent in conditions of development of statehood in the Republic of Adyghea on the basis of dialogue interaction of society and power is presented. The author uses qualitative sociological methods (free interview and observation) to determine the attitude of peoples to a new global risk – pandemic – and to identify life values in conditions of uncertainty. It is concluded that also in the future, global risk will affect the transformation of forms of cooperation between peoples. Therefore, the paper raises the question of managing global risk in the context of a changed reality.
Shaov A.A., Nekhay V.N.
ISLAMIC COMMUNITY OF THE RUSSIAN REGION IN THE CONTEXT OF GLOBAL TRANSFORMATIONS: ETHNO-RELIGIOUS ASPECT
The article reveals the features of the deconstruction of the value world of the Muslim community under conditions of globalization. The intensification of globalization trends that cause the entropy of ethnocultural values, funds the growing trends of forced secularization of traditional society. In this regard, there is a need for a theoretical interpretation of the processes of transformation of the gnoseological and socionormative principles of Islamic society. Based on the generalization of the sociological research conducted by the staff of the Department of Philosophy and Sociology of Adyghea State University in 2019, the thesis on the viability of ethnic and religious values in the spiritual space of the Muslim community of Adyghea is confirmed. The survey shows that the majority of respondents holistically build their identification matrix, which is based on the fundamental interdependence of ethnocultural and confessional grounds. Nevertheless, the Adyghe population, to a greater extent than representatives of other peoples of the region professing Islam, demonstrates the primacy of ethno-traditional values over religious principles through an articulated representation of the traditional ethical and regulatory system of "adygage". It is concluded that the Muslim community of the region perceives globalization as a challenge to identity and focuses on the preservation of a cultural core based on ethno-religious values.
Gorlova I.I., Kovalenko T.V., Naumenko V.E.
HISTORICAL AND CULTURAL HERITAGE OF THE REPUBLIC OF ADYGHEA AS A RESOURCE FOR ETHNOCULTURAL BRANDING OF THE TERRITORY (CONCEPTUAL FRAMEWORK FOR THE FORMATION OF AN UMBRELLA BRAND)
The problem of ethnocultural branding is considered as one of the priority areas of regional cultural policy. Based on the analysis of the potential historical and cultural heritage of the Republic of Adyghea as the basis for ethnocultural branding, which contributes to improving the image of the territory, economic and social attractiveness and preserving cultural identity, identifies the conceptual basis for the formation of an umbrella brand territory. Authentic ethnocultural brands “Adyghe cheese” and “Adyghe salt”, which are part of the material culture of the ethnic group, are considered as examples. Having accumulated the key achievements of domestic theorists and practitioners in the field of cultural policy, the problems of preserving cultural heritage and tourism, cultural marketing, and branding, the authors have developed a conceptual scheme for the formation of an umbrella brand “Adyghea without Borders”.
Kuek Zh.Kh., Suleymanova F.Kh.
ON SOME ASPECTS OF THE ETHNOCULTURAL IDENTITY MANIFESTATION IN THE WORKS OF CONTEMPORARY CIRCASSIAN ARTISTS OF TURKEY
The article attempts to identify and analyze the problem of understanding and reflecting ethnocultural identity in the works of the Circassian diaspora artists in Turkey. It is shown that it is formed on the basis of the intersection of the socio-cultural, national-historical, political-cultural, and other spheres.
Currently, in the context of the globalization process, that leads to the unification of cultures, the issue of cultural memory preservation and inheritance of ethnical groups in the context of the diaspora is relevant on the following reasons: the works of Turkey artists, that show the sustainable interest towards the presentation of the cultural identity of the Circassians, are the keepers of knowledge about the values, traditions, moral ideals of folk culture; through their perception, the young generation of the Circassian diaspora forms their ideas about the world, society and about themselves. This is a complicated process in multicultural space of Turkey’s art, as its basis is interaction and interpenetration of different cultures.
Much attention is paid to the analysis of the reasons and factors contributing to the crisis of national identity topic in the work of the Circassian artists of Turkey. It is concluded that the collective ethnocultural identity is the artistic basis in the contemporary visual arts of the diaspora artists.