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#4 / 2018
Role of the Black Sea Fleet in creation of the Black Sea coastline (1837-1839)
The paper discusses a role of the Black Sea Fleet in creation of the Black Sea coastline in 1837-1839. A number of important aspects of this subject are considered: the resources of the Black Sea Fleet involved at implementation of landings, its function and a general significance; actions of squadrons of the fleet when carrying out landing operations; and participation of naval military ranks in fights with the Circassian militias ashore. At the same time attention is paid to close interaction of the Black Sea Fleet and the Separate Caucasian Corps.
Barazbiev M.I., Murzakhanov Yu.I.
Studying ethnography of the people of Kabardino-Balkaria, Karachay-Cherkessia and Adyghea (1918 - 1940): bibliographic aspect
Bibliographic manuals and indexes, being a special genre of scientific research, substantially predetermine the subsequent researches in the field and also set conditions for translation of the available scientific knowledge, i.e. it is possible to claim that the scientific and methodological value in the last decades considerably increases. This is promoted also by that circumstance that the role of science history in structure and content of scientific knowledge becomes more and more significant. The researcher begins work with preliminary acquaintance with scientific literature, with studying the printing sources devoted to various plots of the considered problem. And here the main sources are the bibliographic indexes making it possible not only to reveal material, necessary for further studying, but also to track the main stages of research interest in the matter. Formation and development of bibliographic tradition of studying the people of Kabardino-Balkaria, Karachay-Cherkessia and Adyghea as independent scientific direction within the bibliography of local history of the North Caucasus, still remains a problem of the future. Bibliographic editions are a special type of sources for studying various questions related to the organization of scientific activity, history of scientific societies, institutions and organizations, first of all, local, being engaged in studying and development of regional history, identification of historiographic plots. During the period 1918 - 1940 considered by authors of the present paper, there is a formation of the Soviet bibliographic tradition connected, first of all, with certain changes of the bibliographic repertoire, ideologically mediated approach to the bibliographic text, etc., when the study of local lore ceased to fit into a framework of the developing political system.
Burykina L.V., Korchemkina E.E.
Activities of public authorities of Adyghea for overcoming consequences of natural cataclysms in the 1920-1930s
In the paper, based on a wide range of documents and materials, a history is recreated of such element of interaction of the person with the nature as the influence of natural disasters on everyday life and activity of the population, government institutions and the public of Adyghea in the 1920 –1930s. Also, the critical analysis of specific measures of the authorities and society on overcoming consequences of natural cataclysms and emergency situations, on assistance to affected population of the area is given. Authors have arrived at a conclusion that regular floods and hailstorms negatively affected social and economic development of the region and without the coordinated actions of the Soviet Union, regional and local authorities sustainable development of agriculture would be impossible.
B.M. Dzhimov, a researcher of history of Adyghes
The paper analyzes questions of a research of history of Adyghes in the North Caucasus and Kuban by the erudite caucasiologist, Adyghe researcher B.M. Dzhimov. The paper focuses attention on a contribution to development of historical science of the Adyghe people of Kuban and the Caucasus and on the fundamental monographs prepared by the scientist on this problem. Also, his assessment of Perestroika events in the country, including in Adyghea and in Kuban is noted.
Role of the people of the Karachay Autonomous Region in defense of the Caucasus (1942-1943)
The paper shows participation of the population of the Karachay Autonomous Region in defense of the North Caucasus against the German fascists and their patriotic and heroic actions in days of the Great Patriotic War.
Tonkikh (Zaritskaya) T.V.,
Formation of an education system in Novorossiysk and a role of Komsomol in "educational revolution" (1900-1920s)
In this study, the condition of an education system in Russia at the beginning of the 20th century is considered, taking an example of the city of Novorossiysk. During this period, political factors defined a vector of modernization of an education system, having affected consciousness of society and change of social stratification. The state provided to the younger generation a role of the leader of labor and driving force of modernization of national economy. However, the bulk of youth was semiliterate. The Party and Komsomol system helped youth to realize the potential effectively through "educational revolution", including through workers' faculties.
Khuako Z.Yu., Zhade Z.A.
Sociocultural measurement of formation of a system of national journalism in the North Caucasus in the 1920-1930s
This paper considers various aspects of formation of a system of mass media in the conditions of the Soviet autonomy. Special attention is paid to historical sociocultural measurement of mass media, characteristic of components of a system of periodicals, features and typology of newspapers and magazines in the multiethnic region and in variety of the sociocultural environment.
Formation of institute of the head of the rural settlement in the Russian Federation: historical and legal analysis (1993 - 2018)
In the paper, based on federal, regional and municipal legislative instruments, the historical and legal analysis of transformation of the status of the head of the rural settlement is given. Process of change of the purposes and objectives of activity of heads, volume of their powers, spheres of responsibility, order of interaction of local governments with heads of rural settlements is characterized.
Schneider W.G., Shkhachemukov R.M., Abregova Zh.O.
The Soviet national policy in the North Caucasus (1917 – the end of the 1950s): features of methodology of research
The paper shows how the authors see the bases of methodology upon which history of the Soviet national policy in the North Caucasus is investigated. In the text, the theoretical fundamentals of a research of such phenomena as ethnic and cultural integration, sociocultural interaction, national construction and some others are analyzed. According to authors, these processes were characteristic of the Soviet national policy in the North Caucasus during the considered period. Therefore it is necessary to have a fair idea of modern methods of a research of these phenomena, of features of terminology and the content of the basic concepts.
Bespalova A.A., Vyalykh N.A.
Social features of medical care consumption in the South of Russia
This study examines what are features of alternative (conservative and liberal) and hybrid (conservative liberal and liberal conservative) models of social behavior of medical care consumers in the south of Russia. The results suggest that (1) most of inhabitants of the South of Russia adhere to the conservative - liberal (state’s - liberal) model of social behavior in health sector now; (2) society of the South of Russia shows high level of adaptability to transformations in the social sphere; (3) most of the population are ready to adapt, in the presence of support from the state, to new conditions of delivery of health care; (4) the social behavior in health sector, as a rule, is reflexed, has a certain logic and the sequence, and is by its nature flexible and situational.
Leadership discourse among the Russian young people: potential of vertical social mobility
The author of the paper believes that the research of the solidary communities focused on joint active actions for growth of vertical social mobility is relevant for definition of an activity contour of vertical social mobility of the Russian youth. According to the author's position, whatever effective organizational forms of youth were represented, solidarity of youth is defined by mutual compliance of the organization and a discourse of leadership. The leadership discourse leaning on the power and career reproduces the regressive or stagnating social mobility of youth. The leadership discourse as a key concept represents set of valuable dominants and interpretations of current problems that is a collective intentionality of youth in relation to a problem of the ascending social mobility. Solidary actions of youth in a corridor of opportunities of the ascending social mobility, according to a position of the author, depend on goal-setting which is formed by the leader in the form of acceptance by youth of priorities of social activity. Responsibility of young Russians to be "creators of their own destiny" and to establish cooperation with the state institutes, leaning on financial, organizational opportunities both autonomous, and within feedback, depends on finding consent concerning the purposes and forms of joint activity.
Vyalykh N.A., Filimonova M.A., Bespalova A.A.
Theoretical and methodological problems of studying medical care consumption in contemporary Russia
The paper discusses modern theoretical approaches within which the analysis of medical care consumption in modern Russia is possible. The analysis of domestic and foreign scientific literature demonstrates that there is no integrative methodology of sociological knowledge of laws of professional medical care consumption as a kind of social action in the context of social differentiation of society. In that case, basic methodological approaches of a research of inequality of medical care consumers will be the structurally functional analysis, conflict approach and constructivist structuralism. Also, consideration of a problem of inequality of medical care consumers does not exclude the possibility of use of structural and functional approaches separately for more detailed and deep analysis of processes and the phenomena in a health care system and its subsystems.
Grishay V.N., Zenin K.A., Grebenyuk D.V.
System dynamics of modern society as factor of political regulation
The present stage of development of society is characterized by extremely high rates of social changes. At the same time, the speed of changes is such that society often does not manage to adapt to the proceeding transformational processes that leads to a condition of permanent adaptation crisis. In these conditions, the question of opportunities of the political power to decrease intensity of crisis trends is updated. This paper deals with major factors of modern political regulation, as well as analyzes the most promising tools of the political power. Also, the publication considers problems of system interrelation of public institutes and internal dynamics of social institutes as factor of political regulation. The thesis about growth of demand of the predictive sphere of social knowledge is substantiated.
Denisova G.S., Lubsky A.V., Voitenko V.P.
Russian identity as subject of research practices
The paper deals with the Russian identity as a subject of research practices. Authors emphasize that in the center of researchers’ attention there are, first of all, such questions as a concept of the Russian identity, its specifics, and factors of formation and structure of the Russian identity which in a scientific discourse have debatable character. In the conditions of actualization of a question of the civilization measurement of the Russian identity caused by search of civilization "answers" to globalization "challenges", ideas of Russia as the state civilization, as the reviewer of national and civilization identity are formed. Recently in a scientific discourse attention was paid to need of studying the Russian identity in multiethnic regions of Russia where ethnonational identities are a certain competitor to it.
Ilyinova N.A., Chistyakova O.A., Avagimyan A.V.
Islam in Adyghea: features of integration into national culture
The paper develops the subject of inclusiveness of Islam in the national culture of the Adyghes. Religious consciousness of the Adyghes is noted for syncreticity. Synthesis of pagan cults, Christian and Muslim practices, Adygage has an ambiguous impact on a spiritual component of national culture of the Adyghe ethnos. Islamization of Adyghea includes several stages, but the combination of various religious bases was not overcome finally. Islam in Adyghea did not acquire the status of the only social regulator, its distribution and rooting were constantly restrained by the moral and ethical complex of the Adyghes developed during centuries-old history of these freedom-loving people. Today spiritual life of the modern Adyghes is regulated by multi-vector bases, which to a certain extent can be considered as specifics of ethnic identity.
Spiritual health of the Dagestan students in the context of tolerant attitudes
The paper discusses the influence of spiritual health on formation of tolerant attitudes in mass consciousness and behavior of the Dagestan studying youth.
Kasparov A.R., Plotnikov V.V., Setov R.Yu.
Conflictness as an object of research in contemporary sociological theories
The paper considers the conflictness as an object of research of the humanities. The relevance of this problem lies in need to specify a categorial conceptual framework of sociology of the conflict. The publication reveals the influence of sociocultural and existential approaches on the general theory of the conflict. An opportunity is provided to look at the conflict in terms of metaphysics. Also, the prospect of methodological rapprochement of social, philosophical and sociological theories concerning conflictness is defined.
Elderly people in traditional and innovative society: attitude, social status and opportunities
Age problems are put much more frequently in modern social sciences. It is connected with the fact that now the problems and contradictions connected with age definiteness of members of society became aggravated. At the same time one of widespread mistakes is the fact that social knowledge, after medical sciences and psychology, considers social aspects of age at the general level. Within the present article, the attention is focused on distinctions between western and eastern types of culture and divergences in them connected with interpretation of category of age. Also, the consecutive analysis is made of differences between innovative and traditional societies in relation to a question of understanding of category of age and the attitude towards elderly people. The point of view is substantiated according to which a number of the burning issues connected with a social status of elderly people results from cultural principles of innovative society.
Konovalova L.A., Kumpilov T.A.
Islamic clergy of Adyghea in modern conditions
This study examines what are features of formation and development of the corps of modern Muslim clergy in the Republic of Adyghea. During the past decades the role of spiritual figures increased, their number considerably increased, from a social layer they turned into the social professional group with the intellectual resources having high potential of influence on the population and public processes. It is inferred that Muslim elite, preserving and increasing traditions and values of Islam, in recent years began to play more and more important role in the Republic of Adyghea.
Kukva E.S., Ashinova D.A.
Features of manifestation of global trends in transformation of religious consciousness at student's youth (from materials of focus group discussions)
The paper analyzes some global trends characteristic of the religious sphere of the contemporary world. Based on the data of World Values Survey (WVS) - the World research of values and materials of the focus group discussions held among students of higher education institutions of Adjaria and Adyghea, the authors study features of manifestation of the specified trends in consciousness of youth in a comparative way.
Image journal editions of higher education institution as form of a university homosphere and strategic resource
The paper presents an essentially new approach to a research of the university as sociocultural phenomenon through humane forms, namely: its publishing. Having the phenomenal potential connected with socialization and consolidation of students and teachers, humanitarization of space in local and global measurements, the university represents multidimensional humanitarian space where a huge number of the actions, aspirations and images expressed in various forms are crossed. The homosphere of the university, on the one hand, is caused by historical conditions of its activity, and on the other – by sociocultural modes. The various university environment caused by cultural, ethnic, social and other contexts is unique, but at the same time it represents the whole problem for effective communication. The publishing house of the university is one of the powerful humanitarian centers of higher education institution designed, on the one hand, to store and pass on the sociocultural experience accumulated by higher education institution throughout history of its existence, and on the other – it is necessary for understanding of values of the past and meanings of the present. On an equal basis with other humanitarian projects of the university today the publishing house is a strategic resource of higher education institution, by means of which there is a fixing of its status of the intellectual leader who is updating new trends, setting new impulses to the movement and trends of development of the city, the region and country.
Nekhay V.N., Shaov A.A., Nurakhmedova A.A., Khachetsukov Z.M.
Globalization as factor of deconstruction of ethnoreligious values of the North Caucasus
This study examines how globalization as megaproject of the Western European civilization influences crisis of ethnoreligious values of traditional society. Authors note that the North Caucasian society is capable to keep the ontologic status of ethnoreligious tradition by means of use of spiritual and moral potential of socionormative institutions, and distancing from the utilitarian - hedonistic principles of "the economic person" as anthropological attribution of a modernist style. This ethnoreligious tradition reactualizes its epistemological and axiological thesaurus in the conditions of search of model of universal development, alternative to a radical modernist style.
Influence of speech aggression in mass media on the attitude to religion
The paper analyzes influence of modern media on perception of religion at carriers of religious consciousness. The author emphasizes importance of language in a religious discourse and religion in formation of cultural values. The main ways of use of speech aggression in mass media are generalized. Special attention is paid to powerful impact of the Internet on the attitude to religion. Examples devoted to religious subject found in the discourse of mass media are given.
Transformation of family values in the society of risk
In this paper, the author calls modernization of society as the main reason for devaluation of family values. German sociologist U. Beck considers it as a basis for formation of so-called society of risk. Society of risk is noted for uncertainty, which negatively affects functioning of one of key social institutes - family. Society of risk levels the importance of the collective principle and proclaims individualist values. This affects decrease in got married and in the level of natural reproduction of population of the Russian Federation. At the same time, the author notes importance of family and family values in stabilization of development of the Russian society.
Zhernovaya O.R., Smirnova O.A.
Language as the tool of "soft power" of the state (from mateials of the USA)
The term "soft power" was included into a public lexicon in the nineties of the last century. It describes a form of foreign policy influence of the state with the purpose to achieve desirable results by voluntary participation and sympathy, unlike such form as "the rigid force” which means policy of pressing and coercion. It is considered that language and the culture of the country is "soft power" which plays a key role in the international relations, influencing directly or indirectly, world politics and interstate communications.
In article, the current state of a problem of use of English by the U.S. Government as tool of soft power, in particular, for strengthening position of the USA in political arena, implementation of the cultural heritage abroad and Internet diplomacy distribution, is analyzed. Authors consider process of formation of English as tool of "soft power" of the USA on examples of introduction and its promoting through educational programs, a role of the Internet in a socio-political context and emergence of such phenomenon as "Internet diplomacy" of the state.
Zimovets L.G., Ponomareva Yu.A.
Historical pseudomorphoses of Russia
An object of this research is O. Spengler's concept of "a historical pseudomorphosis" considered as one of forms of interaction of various cultures. In article, basic provisions of O. Spengler's concept of cultural and historical types are examined, and the analysis of the concept of "historical pseudomorphosis" and its influence on development of the Russian history and culture is carried out. Based on this research, it is inferred that the pseudomorphosis has the destructive nature and negative consequences for culture, which is transformed under its influence.
Kuznetsova A.V., Petrulevich I.A.
City concept: code of culture and narrative
This study aims to explore a city concept in coordinates of a humane scientific paradigm with a support on its studying as the component of the code of culture and specific form of the narrative developed in public consciousness and being a point of application of intellectual and communicative efforts of the certain individual. Such goal-setting defines the task to establish the ontologic status of a concept of the city in modern culture, as well as specifies a studying subject – identification of correlative relationships of the code of culture and the corresponding narrative forming specifics of the studied concept. The concept of the city represents the code of culture that is provided with its structural signs, among which the narrative plays the defining role in view of dynamics of cultural processes of contemporary society and their event nature.
Melsitov V.V., Sergienko N.L., Chernyshova S.A.
Phenomenon and concept of spirituality
This paper deals with conceptualization of the concept "spirituality" of the domestic humanity, mainly in philosophy. Traditions and forms of interpretation of this concept throughout the Soviet and Post-Soviet period are traced. The attention is focused on a problem of integrative approach to a phenomenon of consciousness and interpretation of spirituality as the syncretic intentional condition of the personality and society directed to the supreme values, characterized by category "perfection".
Origin, development and current state of volunteering as Russian sociocultural phenomenon
In modern Russia, the institute of volunteering endures rough rise and is in a stage of active growth. Being the global sociocultural phenomenon, volunteering in our country gains the peculiar features of development under the influence of various social, economic and political factors. At the same time, the institute of volunteering in Russia has deep historical roots. In this paper, historical aspects of emergence of volunteering in Russia, the main stages of its formation and development, the current state, and forms of voluntary activity are considered. Based on the review of domestic historical, sociological and culturological researches, we trace genesis and the current state of volunteering as the Russian sociocultural phenomenon.
The analysis of cultural factors in charters of the Chinese public organizations in the Far East of Russia
Culture influences activity of Chinese, it is undoubted and is reflected in charters of their public organizations. Primary activity of the Chinese diaspora in the Far East of Russia before 1938 was creation of a great number of public organizations of different types that became a prerequisite for our research. Many scientists carried out work related to these organizations but not enough attention was paid to the moral incentives, which advanced development of these organizations. We consider that the analysis of influence of cultural and social factors at moral level is necessary: first, to replenish the theory of history of Chinese in Russia, secondly, to deepen mutual understanding and rid of bewilderment between the people. To recognize these organizations, convincing proofs are their charters serving as rules of conduct of the members and implying characteristic of their activity. We used the analysis of images, literature, comparison and other methods to find out cultural reflection of concepts "devotion" and "respect of parents" in charters of the organizations of 1858-1938, to disclose generality in terms of cultural factors among these charters.