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#1 / 2018
BegeulovR.M., Zelnitskaya (Shlarba) R.Sh.
Transformation of contemporary wedding ceremonialism at Karachays
The paper deals with the contemporary form of wedding ceremonialism at the Karachays. During the research, special attention was paid to transformation of the described ceremony throughout the last century. In the paper, the analysis is given of the major stages of a wedding ritual. The analysis of field material and the available literature on the studied subject has shown that, despite the influence of Islam and Russian-European innovations, steady national elements remain in traditional wedding ceremonialism. Besides, the noticeable simplification of wedding traditions, which has happened during the Soviet and Post-Soviet periods, is noted.
Organization "The Union of the United Mountaineers" and separatism in the North Caucasus: prerequisites, driving forces and results (1917-1919)
The paper analyzes implementation of the national state project in the North Caucasus on creation of the independent Mountain Republic in 1917-1919. The liberal and democratic part of the mountain intellectuals and its newly-formed national political organization "The Union of the United Mountaineers of the North Caucasus and Daghestan" have acted as ideologists and the driving force of separatist tendencies in the region.
The mountain intellectuals have been grown on the Russian cultural soil and after the February Revolution of 1917 they made efforts to strengthen bases of new Russian statehood in the North Caucasus. However, the October Revolution of 1917 has cardinally changed ideas of the political future of the mountain people. Ideological rejection of the Bolshevism has become a source of separatism and one of the main factors of declaration of the independent Mountain Republic in May, 1918. However, the lack of a wide social and national support and clear program of realization of the idea of sovereign statehood, as well as the political conditions of Civil War have led to a failure of the project of the Mountain Republic.
Kazharov A.G., Varivoda N.V.
Kabarda and Balkaria in the course of administrative-territorial reorganization of the North Caucasus in the second half of the 19th – the early 20th centuries
The paper analyzes the processes of administrative-territorial reorganization of the North Caucasus, including Kabarda and Balkaria, in the second half of the 19th – the early 20th centuries. The policy of Russia has been directed to transformation of regional ethnopolitical and ethnogeographical structure. Essential change of ethnic territories and ethnic borders of the mountain people has turned out to be its consequence. Combination of administrative and ethnic borders, crystallization of national interests in new sociohistorical conditions and updating of questions of ethnoterritorial identity become characteristic features of the specified process.
Administrative borders of districts have fixed the ethnic territories and ethnic borders created by violent methods in the early 20th century. The territorial losses of Kabarda accompanying the Russian administrative transformations and threats of their repetition promoted consolidation of all layers of the Kabardian people for maintaining ethnoterritorial identity. As a result of administrative-territorial reforms, objective conditions have been created for formation of a system of ethnopolitical and interethnic interaction of Kabarda and Balkaria within the common administrative and political structure.
Labor achievements of inhabitants of Kosta Khetagurov village in the Karachay-Cherkessia Republic in days of the Great Patriotic War (1941-1945)
The relevance and the scientific importance of a research of economic life of Karachay-Cherkessia population are obvious in the light of new tasks and requirements of contemporary historical science. In the paper, a certain circle of archival historical sources is exposed to the scientific analysis. The publication refills up the gaps in the history of heroic work of residents of Kosta Khetagurov village.
Trade and economic relationship of the Persian and Armenian merchants in Astrakhan in the first third of the 19th century
The paper discusses the history of relationship of merchants of the Persian and Armenian origin in the Astrakhan market in the first third of the 19th century. In conditions when the second departed from the foreign trade operations, and the first, on the contrary, won strong positions in the Astrakhan foreign market, cooperation was multilateral. It was expressed in mutual crediting, in redistribution of the real estate and sales markets, in social stratification. The main conclusion of this research is that the Armenian and Persian merchants have managed to create a situation of mutually beneficial cooperation which contributed in general to the economic development of the region and both considered diaspora.
Suetina N.M., Shefrukova S.T.
Living wage in the Russian Federation: historical and legal aspect
The paper is dedicated to the analysis of formation of the term "a living wage" as legal category. The authors study history of development of the Russian legislation on the living wage, as well as on a consumer basket. The main functions of the living wage and its importance for social policy of the state are identified.
Formation and development of regional department of the Communist Party of the Russian Federation in Karachay-Cherkessia and its participation in electoral processes of the 1990s
The paper is devoted to questions of organizational formation of the Karachay-Cherkessia regional department of the Communist Party of the Russian Federation and its participation in election campaigns of the 1990s. The purpose of this work is to consider and analyze the main stages of development of the CPRF organization in the Karachay-Cherkessia Republic and to mark out specific aspects of participation of communists of the region in electoral processes of federal and regional levels in 1993-2000s.
Abdullaeva E.S., Udzhukhova B.A.
Influence of globalization on traditional spiritual culture
The problem of globalization is considered in numerous articles and monographs. At the same time the questions concerning change of spiritual culture in the conditions of the accruing leveling of cultural borders are relevant today. The correlation of various types of cultures in new historical conditions, continuous process of interaction with other cultures and diffusion of culture elements result in syncretic "shape" of the ethnos spiritual culture.
Patriotic education in the conditions of global socio-structural transformations
Development of local society is defined by a number of factors, including the level of technical development of world society, intensity of external communication, efficiency of internal structure of society and its ability to adaptation. The modern historical period is characterized by extremely intensive interaction of local social systems that is reflected in their structure, on the one hand, increasing intensity of development of certain institutional spheres, and, on the other, resulting in development of powerful crisis tendencies. In these conditions the problem of realization of protective functions of society becomes relevant. One of the most important protective functions of society is the constructive social self consciousness of members of society expressed in the term "patriotism". This paper discusses the role of patriotic consciousness in counteraction to the destructive processes related to globalization.
Dynamics of the functional repertoire of the social institute of the state in the 21st century: theoretical-applied analysis
The beginning of the 21st century is marked by large-scale transformational processes in the focus of which is the formation of global information society, with domination of information and computer, satellite, telecommunication and microprocessor technologies. Technical and technological "re-equipment" of social system was reflected with inevitability in the main social institutes and subsystems, including the state. This social institute actively changes the functional repertoire, adapting to conditions of social reality of the 21st century.
Globalization in the conditions of modern sociocultural transformations
One of the most important problems of modern social knowledge is the analysis of globalization tendencies in the context of sociocultural transformations. The paper analyzes globalization processes and reveals their difference from set of social tendencies in a modern universum. It is shown that globalization represents the long, dragged-out in time process and it is extremely problematic to find its starting point. The publication examines globalization tendencies, its factors and the accompanying natural changes which inevitably happen in the modern world.
Ignatushko I.V., Maseev S.V.
Conceptual-methodological analysis of electoral legal culture
In the paper, an attempt is undertaken to analyze electoral legal culture which, being a component of political culture, combines subjective process of understanding by people of need to participate in social and political life through the mechanism, most widespread in the modern world, - political elections with objective need to delegate the sovereign right for the higher authority in the state to intermediaries in the form of individual or collective electoral actors. In such a way, on the one hand, the patrimonial essence of the person as "political being" is implemented, and, on the other, the legitimacy of functioning of political system which receives, at least, nominal support from the vast majority of citizens is provided. Considering that in transitional societies elections perform not only classical function of change of positions of a ruling and oppositional class, but also bear large social and psychological loading, a stabilizing role of electoral legal culture in life of society becomes clear.
Kilyaskhanov M.Kh., Kitokova Zh.M.
Mechanisms of consolidation and social crushing as factors of inclusiveness of elderly people in public process
In public consciousness the age represents one of the forms of a social markedness. Belonging to specific age group defines the initial expectations directed to the person, his status and, respectively, the attitude towards him. Along with this, the age represents one of the factors of formation of own vital scenario of the person. In this sense the age is not only a chronological indicator of number of the lived days, but also the social characteristic. The paper examines social measurement of age in the context of a problem of inclusiveness of elderly people in life of society. The factors defining inclusiveness of elderly people in social process, as well as factors of their isolation are considered. Alternatives to the current tendencies of an exception of elderly people of active public life are investigated.
Nonlinear dynamics of scientific knowledge: the confidence in it
The paper deals with the challenges to confidence in scientific knowledge which have arisen in society and especially at representatives of the science in the course of formation of the complicated not linearly developing social realities. The publication traces social and cultural factors of origin of almost absolute confidence in scientific knowledge in the age of Enlightenment. At the same time, the work shows the historicity of confidence in the "universal" truth and "objective" laws which was characteristic of that era. The historical importance of confidence in scientific knowledge in the form of organized scepticism and its role in development of sociology and other sciences are proved. The theoretical-methodological tools of a critical nonlinear reflection aimed at rediscovery of novelty in earlier obtained knowledge are investigated. The confidence paradoxes in scientific knowledge generating vulnerabilities unprecedented earlier in life of the modern person are proved. Formation of the dramatized confidence as a transition consequence from "society of risks" to "world society of risks" is especially analyzed. The author shows that the virtual reality plays more and more significant role, respectively, the dramatized meanings of confidence in scientific knowledge and scientific ignorance, which ambivalently influence consciousness of people, have come to our life. The approaches to a research of the place and a role of metamorphoses in social development presenting the latest challenges to confidence in sociological knowledge are critically analyzed. The author suggests that we can overcome these challenges on the ways of the humanistic turn assuming refusal of a pragmatical vector of development of science and transition to qualitatively new type of scientific confidence.
Formation of culture of risk in vocational training of future rescuers of EMERCOM Agency of Russia
The paper analyzes the formation of culture of risk at potential rescuers. Attention is paid to demand of a profession of the rescuer in modern society, as well as to the raised risk of activity of rescuers in comparison with other professions. The specifics of training of rescuers in the context of formation of culture of risk are considered. Data of empirical researches are provided.
Mukha V.N., Klochko E.N., Shichiyakh R.A.
Ethnic factor in development of economy of the Krasnodar Region
This paper substantiates need to account impact of an ethnic factor on economy of the Krasnodar Region. The review of the main directions of the analysis of ethnic manifestations in economic processes is presented; the characteristic of ethnoeconomic forms of activity is provided; and the ethnodemographic profile of the region is described. The conclusion is drawn that development of ethnoeconomy is capable to provide both growth of economic indicators of the region, and lowering of risks of interethnic tension.
Features of studying culture of civil society: experience in empirical researches
The paper deals with the phenomenon of culture of modern civil society through empirical experience in its studying. The author allocates the structural components of civil culture which are subject to the empirical analysis: 1) informative orientation (cognitive criterion) - idea of civil society, its role in development of the country, interest in political process, conscious understanding of the socio-political phenomena and processes, mastering new civil knowledge; 2) emotional and estimated orientations (value-motivational criterion) - feelings of respondents in relation to performance of functions, significant for them, from institutes of civil society and the state, 3) practical orientations (activity criterion) - ability to be an active subject of social and political life, the aspiration to express the civic stand in a legal framework, implementation of the civil rights and duties, and manifestation of strong-willed efforts on protection and upholding civil values. The analyzed array of various data allows us to claim that in Russian modern conditions it is more preferable to talk about nonconventional and experimental civil society and, that is natural, about weak surge in culture, its specificity, backwardness and unbalance. The state and civil identity which is followed, on the one hand, by patronage of the state and, on the other, by weak desires of updating civic consciousness is its cornerstone.
Concept of generation and types of its interpretation
Social reproduction is one of the most interesting and current problems of the present since processes of reproduction define maintaining public structure in the face of external and internal changes. Taking into account that modern transformational processes are extremely intensive, the problem of reproduction of society gains the special importance. One of key aspects of a problem of social reproduction is the specifics of its subject, namely: generation, in opinion of many researchers. One of the main problems lies in that the concept of generation is extremely complicated and has a number of interpretations in various disciplines. This paper carries out the state-of-the-art review of the main approaches to interpretation of a concept of generation and explores the most adequate variant of terminological application of the concept "generation" in the context of scope of social reproduction.
Acceleration of sociocultural dynamics in the system of challenges of the present
The paper interprets unprecedented acceleration of course of public processes, radical change of a sociocultural landscape and emergence of new and new social realities as a challenge to modern mankind. The author sets the purpose to detect the most sensitive "painful points" of society, emergence of which is caused by dynamism of its development.
Shakhbanova M.M., Murtuzova Z.M., Shakhpazova R.D.
Migration processes in Daghestan modern society: state and tendencies
Migration processes, characteristic of Russian modern society, depending on intensity of the process, can have various social consequences in the form of aggravation of a situation in the social and economic sphere, in labor market and in destabilization of an international situation, especially in multiethnic and polyconfessional territories. The results of this research allowed the authors to establish that internal Dagestani migrants positively characterize an international situation in territories of the new accommodation, simultaneously approving of existence in a latent form of international tension. The authors use a scale of Bogardus to show the social distancing of migrants and the accepting society, ethnic behavior and orientations of the interviewed Daghestan people.
Prestigiousness of ethnos and problems of unstable ethnic identity: in the case of the Republic of Bashkortostan
The paper analyzes the problem of prestigiousness of ethnos in the competing ethnic environment. Using various examples, the author discloses the phenomenon of the mixed, unstable identity and the problem of status and role position of ethnoses.
Constitutional legal status of social justice in the Russian Federation
The paper discloses the specifics of constitutional legal status of social justice in the Russian Federation. An analysis is made of features of evolution of social justice, including such components as democracy and equality of all citizens before the law, the actual equality of the nations, respect of the personality and creation of conditions for its all-round development. Also wide social guarantees and structure of the subject of legal and social policy are generalized.
Gusev A.A., Smetanina O.V.
Phenomenon of a computer game and religious practices
The paper deals with the transformation of the the person, his moral principles and religious views under the influence of virtual reality, example of which is the computer game "Gothic". The authors give the comparative analysis of structure of the specified game and compliance of this structure to the religion phenomenon which is available in real life.
The October Revolution: dialectics of creation and destruction (from materials of a round table)
This is the review of speeches and discussion which have sounded at a meeting of the round table dedicated to the World Day of Philosophy founded by UNESCO. Among the discussed key questions were modern assessment of events of 1917, a phenomenon of historical memory, its influence on civil solidarity and the analysis of the key changes which have happened in society under the influence of events of October 1917.