#2 / 2012
S.A. Liaoucheva, A.A. Shaov
History of evolution of the usurious capital
The paper discusses the basic stages of history of evolution of the usurious capital in the West European civilization. Rudiments of economic theories in the Western Europe are mainly encountered in compositions of fathers of church, seminary students and jurists - canonists of the 14-16th centuries. Trade in them was admitted only at observance of honesty, justice and conscientiousness and at condemnation of usury (giving money on loan under percent.). The church leaned to a certain degree on samples of the Roman Right. However, primarily the church influenced the debt right and a commercial law as a whole through the doctrine about the fair price.
A church nonparticipation in development of market relations in the Middle Ages was in its basis. Medieval patristic didn't regulate economic views in system of independent scientific knowledge. Views and the ideas concerning the economic theory were an integral part of system of moral theology. The ethical aspect of the economic theory appeared to be self-sufficing. And only in the Education epoch the ban for growth was lifted everywhere. Similar changes mean that “the market” manufacturer is focused now on a manufacture economic gain.
Methodological problems of legal system in the Middle Ages
The paper discusses the basic stages of formation and evolution of the law in West Europe during the Medieval times. Historically, owing to the specificity, the law acts as an effective means of a society governing. Accordingly legal regulation is often considered as an establishment of legal instructions and their ensuring by the state. The secular world of “the economic person” demanded a legal substantiation of occurring changes. Here ontologic, axiological, gnoseological and intrinsic aspects of the law, stages of its formation and development is the law genesis as the progressing evolution of the content, volume, scale and measure of freedom, equality and justice. The research is focused on stages of formation and development of the law in historical measurement when, since an epoch of Medieval Christian Europe, the legal vector has changed the orientation towards secular law comprehension. This was directly related to the Renaissance and Education epochs.
Procedural and structural aspects of gender identification
This paper provides an analysis of a number of theoretical concepts concerning the discourse structure of gender identity. Also it touches upon the procedural parameters of personal self-identification in temporal duration during lifetime. The author arrives at a conclusion that not only socialization leads to certain identification features of a person but also the individualization of the objective reality of a person plays an important role in this process.
A.O. Sleptsova, N.V. Zhilkina
Fantasy as a nonmoral field of creative activity
The paper conceives of fantasy as a tool of creativity which cannot be ethical reflection. Using the examples of scientific and artistic creativity the author proves the presence of such common peculiarity as escapism in both spheres. This allows the author to conclude that the degree of preoccupation of the individual with his own world of desire is so high that all public and personal interests are lost for the creator.
Tendencies in development of religious consciousness in modern Russia
On the basis of the analysis of the domestic and foreign literature on the given theme the author investigates tendencies in development of religiousness in modern Russia. The reasons of revival of religiousness and clericalism in Russia nowadays are considered in this paper. The author comes to a conclusion that in sociocultural measurement religion as the tradition is the major mechanism of reproduction and translation of moral standards and cultural wealth without which it is impossible to imagine any culture. The object of research is a condition of modern religious consciousness of Russians.
Zh.O. Abregova, N.A. Pocheshkhov
The Soviet historiography of the Civil War in the Kuban region (1917-1921)
An analysis is made of the Soviet historiography of the period of civil war in the Kuban region. The authors determine the role and significance of the Soviet period in scientific studying the civil war in Russia.
“Memory places”: a fashionable definition or historiography practice?
An attempt is undertaken to answer a question: in what historiography situation the notions about token places of historical memory have arisen and developed.
E.M. Malysheva, E.E. Korchemkina
Activity of Adygheya authorities on reorganization of a forestry management in the 1920-1940s
The paper analyzes a historical experience in formation of a regional forestry management system related to the all-Russian development of this process. The basic stages of reorganization of the forestry in Adygheya are discussed.
Mobilization mechanisms in activity of state farms in the Kuban and Stavropol territory in days of the Great Patriotic War
The paper shows possibilities of using experience obtained by state farms in days of the Great Patriotic War for the decision of contemporary agriculture problems. The author analyzes mobilization mechanisms in activity of state farms in the Kuban and Stavropol Territory and discusses the basic directions of reorganization of work of state farms in the conditions of war. Influence of mobilization mechanisms on activity of state farms in days of war is examined. As a result of study importance of use of mobilization mechanisms in state-farm manufacture with a view of rational and effective utilization of material and personnel resources is proved.
On history of resettlement movement in the Republic of Daghestan (1924-1966)
This paper discusses the problematic aspects of the resettlement policy in the Republic of Daghestan during 1924-1966. The author shows the main stages of the mountaineers’ movement to the plain, the value of the land-water reform, which allowed mountaineers to cultivate the land, as well as the difficulties of this process, associated with the natural disasters that occurred in a number of the settlement areas. The positive results of the mountaineers’ resettlement and the role of the Soviet government in this historical process are marked.
Creativity of Kumyksky theatre in the second half of the 1940-s to the beginning of the 1960-s
On the basis of diverse and historiographic base the author of this paper analyzes activity of Kumyksky theatre from the second half of the 1940-s to the beginning of the 1960-s. This work examines the performances which have defined a new step of creative growth of Kumyksky theatre. The assessment of work of actors and directors in the certain period of time is given.
M.V. Yanova (Lenkova)
Problematic aspects of historiography of science development in Kalmykia in the post-Soviet period
The paper highlights the complex of problems concerning Kalmykia historiography in the post-Soviet period. The author aims at researching the science development in the Kalmyk State University and the contribution of the Kalmyk State University scientists to the Russian science development. The work shows the peculiarities of historiography situation through time.
System of democratic institutes of the power in the North Caucasus: history and features (1918 – 1930s)
The author investigates the process of formation of democratic institutes of the power in the North Caucasus beginning from 1918 to 1930s. The focus is made on distinction between the regions of the North Caucasus. The author shows the role of revolutionary-military committees, the situation in this or that region and their influence on the formation of authorities in regions.
D.S. Kidirniyazov, A.U. Rabadanova
Social relations of the people of Daghestan and Chechnya in the second half of the 18th – the beginning of the 19th centuries
The paper discusses the social relations of the people of Daghestan and Chechnya in the second half of the 18th - the beginning of the 19th century. In many respects, these property legal relations had similar features: a strongly pronounced social inequality and different forms of ownership of land. Daghestan and Chechnya were not uniform and politically and economically complete territory yet. Simultaneously, both Daghestan and Chechnya had the isolated political unities and the unions of rural communities as a special form of a political system.
Ethnic occurrences and international relations
This work examines problematic aspects of search for new ways of formation of the international relations, development of their culture and national consciousness of the people in new historical conditions in our country. In the paper, the author pays attention to need of a new approach to existing definitions of the concepts of “the people”, “nation” and “nationality”.
Social modernization of Russia
The paper provides a comparative analysis of Christian modernization and modernizations of the New and Soviet times. Their ideological and world outlook components are examined. The authors show the basic difference in types of modernizations by a priority of public and individual values. Basic restrictions in modernization development of a civilization with a priority of individual values are considered.
V.A. Kotlyarov, A.P. Mikhaylov
Legal behaviour of youth as a subject of the sociological analysis
The paper discusses the legitimation of legal behavior in the subculture of modern youth. The authors investigate the determination of deviant behavior of the youth demographic group, as well as features of its sense of justice.
R.A. Khanakhu, O.M. Tsvetkov
Islamic community in Adygheya: internal dynamics and evolution prospects (as shown by the results of sociological research)
The paper discusses the situation in an Islamic community of Adygheya Republic and internal pressure in it. Also this work forecasts the evolution of this community. The basic problem under study is stratification of an Islamic community into supporters of the “traditional Islam” and “pure Islam”, as well as a certain radicalization of a small part of Moslems. An attempt is undertaken for the first time to investigate in detail preconditions of its distribution in republic territory. The reasons and ways of distribution of radical versions of Islam, as well as scales of their influence on local population are analyzed.
T.I. Afasizhev, V.N. Nekhay
Globalization in the perception of the Circassian ethnic group: experience in sociological research
This paper analyzes the features of perception by the Circassian ethnic group of the globalization process, transforming the economic and sociocultural spheres. Based on data of the conducted sociological survey the author reveals the consequences of mondialisation for the mechanisms of social and cultural dynamics of the Circassians.
Features of group interaction of youth in traditional culture of the Adyghes
The paper discusses features of group interaction of youth in regional society. Features of a life and culture of the Adyghes are examined. The basic forms and social essence of interaction of youth in a traditional society are distinguished on the basis of the analysis of historical evidences.
Social and economic assessment of the competitive environment in Russia
The paper deals with the social and economic analysis of competition in Russia. The author considers the macroeconomic factors that influence the dynamics of competitive relations, as well as the results of realization of the state competitive policy. The paper provides a generalized assessment and the problematic aspects of the further development of competitive relations in Russia.
Present conditions and prospects of implementing IT financial management of Rostov region
The paper discusses the key points of developing financial management of Rostov region. The author underlines the main problems of implementing IT in this sphere and the ways they can be solved.
The defining conditions of managerial behavior in the field of labor safety at small construction enterprises
The sociological research was implemented to reveal features of the determination approaches to safety management and labor safety at small construction enterprises. It is inferred that there is a conflict between systems of labor efficiency management and labor safety at small construction enterprises. The cause of conflict is the change of worldview and axiological principles of workers and the low maturity of the management culture.
The basic stages of development of social advertising in Russia
An analysis is made of the basic stages of development of social advertising in Russia. The author proves that modern social advertising reflects a historical way of its formation and development. This is manifested, first of all, in preservation of the leading positions of the state in regulating and implementing social and promotional activities.
The spiritual culture of the region: current situation and trends of changes
This paper presents a comparative analysis of the estimates and opinions of the population of Astrakhan region about the state, basic tendencies and problems in the sphere of spiritual culture obtained on the basis of the results of sociological researches in 2005 and 2010. There are some changes in the respondents' opinions concerning the Russian spiritual culture, the extent of realization of spiritual demands and the attitude to the activity of the state and regional government in the sphere of culture.
Corruption as the crisis factor of sociocultural mentality of youth
This paper addresses the phenomenon of corruption as a crisis factor of sociocultural mentality of youth. The author defines the mechanisms of minimization of its destructive impact and examines the problematics of sociological researches in sphere of counteraction against corruption.
Definition of subject domain of social management and functions of social management of the modern organization
This paper analyzes the definition of subject domain of social management. The author identifies and analyzes the functions of social management of enterprises. It is inferred that the social form of management is based on the social paradigm of the organization development. The solution of problems concerning application of the categorial apparatus of social management is related to basic elaboration or critical revision of a number of bases and categories of both sociology and management.
The analysis of the organization of information-analytical maintenance of activity of the law-enforcement bodies of the Russian Federation
The paper analyzes the organization of information-analytical maintenance of activity of law-enforcement bodies of Russia. Information-analytical maintenance is included organizationally into a control system of law-enforcement body, providing in its activity of achievement of the purposes its creation. The author discloses system properties of the given kind of administrative activity, as well as the characteristic problems to be solved within the limits of maintenance of law-enforcement activity of the state.
Bases of strategy of sustainable social and economic development of the region
The paper discusses the problematic aspects of sustainable social and economic development of the region, its essence and factors. The author examines transition to a sustainable development of the region and resources required for the solution of its tasks.
Features of bringing to criminal liability and punishment of minors at the present stage of development of Russia
This paper addresses the maintenance of the rights and freedom of minors, as well as features of the modern legislation in the Russian Federation about a criminal liability and punishment of minors. Justice concerning minor offenders means that measures of influence applied to them provided as much as possible an individual approach to research of circumstances of the made act and were commensurable both with features of their person and with circumstances of the made act, promoted the prevention of crimes among minors and provided them resocialization and protection of legitimate interests of victims.
Legal bases ensuring national security of Russia
The paper discusses legal and political aspects of ensuring security of the Russian state and society. These aspects provide an opportunity of revealing a number of the factors which influence intensely reserves of the state in the solution of problems of ensuring national interests. The main concepts, including security, national interests, national security, state security, are analyzed.
Interpretation of norms of criminally-procedural law as the necessary precondition and a condition of their correct application
The paper addresses the problems arising at interpretation of norms of criminally-procedural law. The reasons of “collisions of norms of the law” are investigated. The author develops a vector which is the precondition and a condition of correct application of the norms of criminally-procedural law in practical life. Importance of the question under study which is related, at times, to destiny and well-being of the person is discussed.
Lunar symbols in dreams and mythic-epic creativity of the Adyghes
The paper provides a list of the most significant symbols of dreams of representatives of the Adyghe ethnos. The dependence of mythology of ethnos on symbolical system of dreams is substantiated. Symbols of the dreams related to the lunar nature are analyzed in detail: ‘water’, ‘snake”, “fish”, “child” and “blood”. The way of realization of the given symbolics in the epos of the Adyghes is investigated. The principle of nonlinear dependence of the archetypical symbolics realized in dreams, epos and in ceremonial practice is marked.
The national and international in arts and crafts of Adygheya artists
The paper discusses principles of interaction of the national and international in arts and crafts of artists of Adygheya. The author considers this theme still urgent, but suggests its study in a plane of sociology and culture psychology. The national and international are correlated as the ethnic-marker, information (style and temporal), esthetic and spiritual signs-codes rather than a form and the content.
Specificity of regional ethnoculture in anthropological space of the Russian society
The paper deals with the regional ethnoculture as an integral part of anthropological space of Russian modern culture. Specific features of ethnoculture as an anthropological constant in contemporary Russian society are analyzed.
A name as the most important sign means of self-identification
The paper discloses the essence and social and psychological value of a name. The consciousness of toponymy of his name often sets special purposes and tasks before the person that are altered with his growth. Questions of the theistic plan are discussed. The most important sign means of a name is prefaced with the social and cultural self-determination of the personality. Some rituals which are traditionally chosen by a society in modern real life are revealed.
National belief of the Abkhazes: traditions and the present (As shown by a sanctuary of the Ampar family)
Nowadays there is an active revival of the traditional religion in the Abkhazes environment. Its value grows steadily in life of society during the past years. It is necessary to underline that for a long time the national belief of the Abkhazes has been the object of steadfast attention in the scientific environment. The available data about traditional religion of the Abkhazian people treat a ceremony of sacrifice as means of uniting and strengthening related links between representatives of the given family rather than only as the form of dialogue of members of the family with a deity.
The first municipal reform as an object of political study
This paper discusses the primary period of municipal reform in the period of 1989-1991. Separately the first municipal reform was distinguished and studied. The author gives a definition of the municipal reform, defines its objectives and components. A political and legal analysis of legislation of municipal reform is undertaken. The main purpose of this publication is a study of the role and place of the local authorities in the political process in conditions of transformation of the entire political system.
Imitation phenomenon in the Soviet social reality
The paper reveals how a variety of imitation strategies were imposed on the new social reality in the conditions of totalitarianism formation: “installing style” of life, symbolic engineering, mythologization and primitivization and ideological indoctrination. The basic components of the imitation are: social action as the introduction of the principles of “vision” in the mass consciousness, a departure from rationality, which includes the distortion or even destruction of the fixeed sense of the social reality in a communicative dialogue and social perception, factor of the engineering of the symbolic reality, pragmatism of imitation as a practice.
Experience in associating subjects in the Russian Federation: problems and preliminary results
The paper analyzes five cases of association of subjects in the Russian Federation in the 2000s and identifies the key features and the main consequences of the reforms in the administrative-territorial division. The study demonstrates the low interest of the population and regional elites in the unification processes, the high relevance of issues related to national identity and very contradictory effects of the reforms.