#1 / 2012
Specifics of philosophic and linguistic approaches to the central linguistic problems
The paper addresses the problems which are investigated by the linguistic philosophy and the philosophy of language. The linguistic philosophy is based on the analysis of the word meanings of natural languages and logic relations between them. The philosophy of language is aimed at evaluating the essential characteristics of a language and a word. The discrepancies in views of philosophers of language and linguists on principal language problems are also examined. The conclusions contain the differences in approaches to the investigations of the basic linguistic notion – a word – of the philosophers of language and linguists.
Sign problem as a tool of cognition of sociocultural reality
This paper discusses a problem of a sign as a tool of cognition of sociocultural reality. This theme is topical because it is poor-studied in the domestic literature. The goal of the paper is to establish the tool role of a sign in investigations of sociocultural reality. The object of study is the sign component of sociocuoltural reality. The subject is a role of a sign in the course of cognition of the given reality. The author discloses the gnoseological sense of a sign. It is inferred that the sign not only connects the person with a thing, providing an opportunity of its cognition, but it also “isolates” a thing (and subsequently isolates itself), taking up an ontologic sense. In addition, the sign is ambivalent, it possesses simultaneously both the features directly following from its definition (i.e. the features of its actual sign nature), and the features denying its own nature.
T.A. Prokopenko, T.A. Shalyugina
The basic strategies of the business community
The Russian business community is showing signs of institutionalization and becomes the subject of business activity. Analysis of the basic strategies of actors in the Russian market gives grounds to believe that the Russian business community, demonstrating the high adaptive capacity, is facing serious problems of definition of strategic objectives. The paper discusses strategies for the development of the modern Russian business community.
A.A. Nagralyan, D.V. Filyushkina
The place and role of national tradition in globalizing economy and culture
This paper is focused upon the problems of preservation of national tradition and national identity in the modern society which is characterized by progressing globalization of economic and cultural life. The authors show that it is necessary to preserve the national tradition and identity since there is a danger of their disappearance as a result of perception of the unified and cosmopolitan culture.
The deterioration in the USA - Iran relations after a victory of Islamic revolution and attempt of the President of the United States J. Carter to release the American hostages in Tehran (1979-1981)
During the regime of the American president J. Carter the USA-Iran relations have changed from allied to confronting in connection with Islamic revolution in Iran in 1979 and the anti-American policy of the new Islamic regime in Tehran in the 1970 – 1980s. The government of the ayatollah R.M. Homeini aspired to create «Islamic caliphate» in the Middle East, which would have its political-economical and religious centre in Islamic Republic of Iran and, thereby, to weaken positions of Washington in the Middle East region. Administration of J. Carter was the first to introduce economic sanctions toward Islamic Republic of Iran as a reaction to the capture of the American embassy in Tehran on November, 4th, 1979, and keeping its diplomatic personnel as hostages. The crisis with the American hostages in Iran has become the determining factor which affected defeat of J. Carter and victory of R. Reagan on the presidential elections of 1980 in the USA.
National historiography of the USA policy concerning Saudi Arabia (1990s –beginning of the 21st century)
The paper shows how the Russian researchers reflect a Near-Eastern policy of the USA concerning Saudi Arabia since 1991. Attention is focused on articles which examine military-political cooperation of two countries, economic partnership and an antiterrorist interaction of the USA and the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia.
The decision of a personnel problem in the Adygheya village: role of pupils’ production teams (the middle of the 1960 – 1980s)
The paper shows the history of formation and development of pupils’ production teams at schools of the Adyghean Autonomous Region (ÀÀÎ) in the mid-sixties – 1980s, their role in rural youth professional orientation and in providing collective farms and state farms with agricultural personnel.
Tsarism’s excise politics in petroleum-refining industry of North Azerbaijan in the second half of the 19th century
The paper discloses the tsarism’s excise politics in petroleum-refining industry of North Azerbaijan and the effect of the latter on the level of economic development of Azerbaijan. The issue, raised in the paper, is to show the general and the particular in tsarism’s excise politics in one of the outlying districts of the empire, as well as to examine conditions of introducing excise into petroleum industry of Azerbaijan, beginning from abolishing a farming system to the end of the 19th century. Thus, the excise politics of tsarism resulted, on the one side, in extraction of great income but, on the other side, in development of economics in North Azerbaijan in the second half of the 19th century.
Interpretation of Fernand Braudel’s scientific concept in Yu.N. Afanasyev's works
This paper discusses the interpretation of the scientific concept of Fernand Braudel, the greatest representative of French historical school “Annals”, in works of Yu.N. Afanasyev, one of the domestic historians who was the first who examined this theme. The author of this paper provides an analysis of the reasons bringing Yu N. Afanasyev to this study, and traces evolution of his views on the subject of study.
The Maikop petroleum “miracle”
This paper provides an analysis of development of petroleum industry in the Kuban region in 1900-1910. The author describes the history of discovering the largest petroleum field in the Kuban region, in the vicinity of Maikop, activity of the first petroleum industry workers and joint-stock companies. This paper aims at studying a phenomenon of Maikop petroleum area. Proceeding from a level of scrutiny of a problem, realization of an object in view assumes the decision of specific targets: to investigate process of discovering and working out the Maikop petroleum deposit; and to show a role of the foreign capital in petroleum industry. “The Maikop oil boom” has involved the foreign capital in petroleum industry of Kuban, but positive results were not achieved. A considerable number of foreign joint-stock companies and the companies which fed hopes of fast enriching at the expense of the Maikop lands rich in petroleum were created. As a result of inflow of the foreign capital the technique of petroleum recovery was not improved and rates of its extraction diminished.
On the history of shamhal Adil-Ghirey Tarkovsky’s military conflict with tsarist government in the Caucasus: reasons and consequences
This paper discussess the conflict of shamhal Tarkovsky with the tsarist government in the Caucasus in 1725 and succeeding abolition of the title of shamhal. On the basis of profound analysis of a wide range of sources an attempt is undertaken to find out reasons which have induced shamhal to make this thoughtless action. The regime of Russian power in the east of Daghestan was a protectorate. Feudal lords in the Caucasus.used to refuse Russian citizenship, coming out with weapon against the tsarist government. These actions are explained by fear of complete subordination towards the Empire and by urge towards re-establishing independence.
The Lenin theory of cooperation: sources, development and its content
After disintegration of the Soviet Union researchers have had an opportunity to study V.I. Lenin's works under another aspect of view, not dogmatizing and without idealizing his products. In this paper, on the basis of Lenin's works, an attempt is undertaken to analyze working out his cooperative plan.
System of party education in the USSR in the 1930s (Based on the North Caucasus materials)
This paper examines the system of party education in the USSR in the 1930s. From the beginning of the 1930s the party-political education became gradually a necessary attribute of a post of the Soviet administrator. This period is characterized by expansion of the long-term program of unification of internal political atmosphere at the higher school including the party school. The program was aimed at complete transformation of higher school into a particle of the obedient nation-wide mechanism.
The trade employment of the population related to processing of skins of animals for manufacturing subjects of a costume, in the history of villages of the New Line (the middle of the 19th century - 1917)
This paper discusses the tanning and furrier's trade employments of the population of the New Line villages, related to processing animal skins for clothes and footwear manufacturing. The author describes a raw-material base for these industrial crafts, modes of their production (a house craft, craft, handicraft) and their economic organization.
Sociocultural identity in the modern social theory
The paper provides an analysis of modern thoughts concerning a phenomenon of socioculural identity. This paper is aimed at carrying out a comparative study of a concept of sociocultural identity at both interdisciplinary and intradisciplinary levels. An attempt is undertaken to introduce a concept of social identity in a context of social practice.
Group identity of age groups of the population in southern macro-region of Russia
The paper discusses the age features of group identity presented in public consciousness of the population of five subjects of federation – the Rostov and Volgograd areas, the Krasnodar and Stavropol territories and the Adygheya Republic. The author examines expressiveness of level components in regional identification of the population and shows the correlation of primordial and designed components in identity structure of age subgroups of respondents.
Sociocultural factors of formation of the youth anti-social organizations
This paper provides a sociocultural analysis of the factors predetermining escalation of anti-social models of behavior in the youth environment during the epoch of the information, post-industrial society. The author examines the basic risk generating determinants of a destructive choice and its causal relations with an individual system of belief.
The socio-political situation in Stavropol Territory in the beginning of elective campaign of “Autumn-2011” (according to results of carrying out sociological research using questionnaires)
The paper defines the urgency of carrying out sociological investigations using questionnaires on electoral behavior of the population, provides an analysis of results of empirical research of citizens of Stavropol Territory and shows the example of construction of sociological “images” for supporters of various parties.
Channels of dissemination of the socially significant information in local communities
This paper shows the basic ways (channels) of informing the population about the socially-significant events. Data on sociological polls of citizens concerning mechanisms of obtaining the information are cited. The most effective ways of informing in modern conditions are defined.
Behavioural risks in a sociocultural context of a HIV-infected target group
This paper provides an analysis of data of the sociological research carried out in a group of persons with a positive HIV-status. Measures for prevention of AIDS and HIV infection in Russia and in Adygheya Republic are considered.
Moral crisis in Russian modern society (based on materials of sociological polling)
The paper presents results of the sociological polling testifying to moral crisis in Russia. The general condition of a modern Russian society looks worried, a standard of living of the overwhelming majority of citizens is below European, social contrasts continue to go deep. Orientation of the Russian people to upsurge of economy and increase in gross national product needs updating because development of any system without a moral component is doomed to degradation. Effective social and economic reforms are possible only if they are supported by humanistic ideas and follow spirituality perfection.
I.A. Babenko, O.A. Volkova, A.O. Egorenko
Human capital in views of various categories of people
This paper presents an analytical analysis of the results of sociological research on the relation of various categories of the population to problems of the human capital. This work discloses and determines the complexity and multifactorial nature of the process of forming basic elements of quality of human capital.
Students’ professional self-identification in the structure of social self-determination (sociological analysis)
This paper shows the importance of the scientific study on students’ social self-determination and professional self-identification as its structural component. The author gives a scientific basis for the relationship of “professional” and “social”. Based on empirical studies the author determines levels of students’ professional self-identification and presents a portrait of a typical social representative of each level of the person’s professional self-identification using students’ polling data from Chita State University.
Functions of leisure activity as its most significant characteristics in the aspect of conformity to various requirements of society members
The paper examines the functions of leisure activity as its most significant characteristics in the aspect of conformity to various requirements of society members. The author discusses the genesis of term “leisure activity” and characterizes its basic scientific interpretations and indicators.
Organizational culture in the Russian Police: problems and prospects
The paper discusses formation of organizational culture in reformed department – in a system of law-enforcement bodies. The author investigates key parameters of reproduction of mechanisms of corporate interaction in this law-enforcement institution.
Theoretical approaches to social adaptation of modern army in the conditions of society modernization
The paper shows the basic theoretical-methodological bases of the analysis of change of modern army related to modernization society trends. The author describes some promising directions of the sociological theory with reference to research of transformation of army as a social institute.
Non-alternativeness of an information-communication trend in a modern society
The paper examines the modern social system, promptly transformed by information and communication technologies, which are capable to change not only the developed social institutions, but also the person.
Institutional and functional approaches in the sociological analysis of business charity
The paper proposes to use institutional and functional approaches as a methodological basis of the sociological analysis of business charity. The author demonstrates institutional features and functions of the phenomenon under study.
Criteria for social state of health of people with physical disability
The paper demonstrates criteria and indicators of social state of health of people with the physical disability. The author elaborated this for the analysis of interrelation of social state of health, social mobility and inclusiveness of these people in a society.
Problems of protection of rights and personal freedoms in Constitutions of the Russian Federation and France (the comparative analysis)
This paper discloses the rights and freedoms of the person and citizen under Constitutions of Russia and France. The comparative analysis of separate constitutional rights and freedoms is given. The author demonstrates distinctions between the legal and actual constitution. Advantages and lacks of two constitutions are shown and certain conclusions are made on their basis.
Corruption in Russia: the law, the power and morals
The paper examines corruption as the system phenomenon penetrating all spheres of the government of Russia and the reasons and consequences of corruption in life of the Russian society. The author gives examples of corruption abuses which are not estimated and not stopped by the power. It is inferred that prime measures of a state policy in sphere of corruption counteraction should be complex and continuous. The interrelation of corruption and moral values with the basic regulators of human life - the state and the law - is analyzed. The power and the law are shown to be the main indicators of the state, the mechanism of combination and interaction of which defines the character of the state system. Attention is payed to that the person develops and can't be satisfied only with material assets and stimuli. Therefore the moral state is a natural stage of evolution.
The sense-forming nature of culture in philosophy of the Renaissance and New Time
The paper examines properties of social being in all various ways of its manifestation that are involved in definition of culture, and reveals a phenomenon of culture in series of such definitions which gradually, in process of advancement in depth of a subject, augment their content. The author ponders upon ideals of mankind, the purposes and problems which it puts, and upon formidable ways of their realization. A phenomenon of culture is considered from a position of humanitarian-esthetic consciousness. An analysis is made of those aspects of culture where the culture can be interpreted as a spiritually-esthetic phenomenon. The scientific literature on the nature of culture and its senses is analyzed.
The star sky as the space of visual information
The work deals with the aspects of prehistory of the modern technical visual culture and its phenomenon of the mass-media news. The author develops the idea of the sky space as the ancient screen and the information-carrying medium. The work studies the influence of the astronomy and magical astrological practices upon the visual interpretation of the Universe, as well as the connection of the sacral pattern of sky images and the virtual reality of contemporary visual technologies.
Z.A. Zhade, S.M. Udzhukhu
Phenomenon of protest identity in Russian modern society
The paper considers protest identity as a component of political identity of the Russians in the conditions of identification search. Proceeding from the analysis of protest behavior and growth of protest moods in the Russian society, the authors define features of protest identity as a complicated real phenomenon and political construct.
Tools and interaction of the Council of Europe and the European Union in democracy promotion
Problems of democracy promotion have been one of the major discussion topics for a long time. In Europe, the Council of Europe and the European Union are active in this sphere. In this connection it is interesting to consider the nature of their interaction, as well as the tools of democracy promotion. Finally, the paper examines the joint programs of the Council of Europe and European Union. A conclusion is made on the nature of the interaction between these two organizations.
Dynamics of development and recruiting the Russian political elite
Recruiting is one of the most important mechanisms of functioning of political system in the course of which identifying and filling of politically important positions take place. The political modernization of state produced substantial transformations in the character of relations between the central and regional power, as well as in mechanisms of recruiting and in specificity of activity of regional political elites.
Political management of investment attractiveness: essence and characteristic features
In modern society, the success of any economy depends increasingly on the effectiveness of its investment policy. The organization of various forms of ownership, as well as the administration bodies of territories can serve as economy subjects. For Russia those are the federal bodies of State power, State power bodies of the Russian Federation`s subjects and bodies of local self-government. In this connection the study of the mechanisms of the political management of the investment attractiveness is becoming more relevant in terms of its practical use. Recently, the interest of Russian scientists to the study of this phenomenon has sharply increased. What is a “political management of the investment attractiveness”? In this paper the author tries to give a general concept of this phenomenon and to identify its essence, features and characteristics in the modern world.