Address: 385000, Maikop, Adyghea Republic, Pervomayskaya Street, House 208. Ph.: 8(8772) 52 48 55
#4 / 2019
Abregova Zh.O., Kazanchi A.R.
Revolutionary events: as shown by materials of Istpart on Kuban, Black Sea coastal area and Adyghea
This article attempts to comprehend the level of informativity of Istpart materials from Kuban, Black Sea coastal area and Adyghea, describing revolutionary events and political processes during the Civil War. The emphasis is made on events witnessed by their contemporaries. Memories are intended for a wide readership and perform a social and educational function. This is reflected in the selection of facts, interpretation of the past, and in the desire to understand the events from a personal point of view. Memories of the specific events of the Revolution and Civil War were most common. Special emphasis in the analysis of memories is placed on the sovereignty of Kuban during the post-revolutionary period. The authors reveal the features of similarity and difference in perception of political processes during the First Russian Revolution and the February events of 1917 in Russia and in the region. Attention is focused on the intensification of revolutionary activities of the RSDLP in the cities of Kuban: Maikop, Armavir and Ekaterinodar. The revolutionary activity in the territory of Kuban, the Black Sea coastal area and Adyghea spread with a temporary delay. By the beginning of 1918, Soviet power had been established in the larger territory of the region and acted as an ideological and political tool to consolidate the Bolsheviks in the fight against the Kuban military government and the Kuban Rada.
Zabara A.P., Schneider W.G.
Change in the number of urban and rural population in the Krasnodar Territory during the 1950s: features and patterns
The article studies the peculiarities of changing the demographic situation in the Krasnodar Territory during the 1950s. The authors have established that demographic processes depend on the level of socio-economic development of the region. The patterns of change in the ratio of urban to rural population in the province have been analyzed, and the reasons for this process have been identified. The forced industrialization influenced the growth of the number of large and small cities of Kuban. The analysis of the results of the All-Union population censuses conducted in 1939 and 1959 allowed the authors to record a higher rate of urbanization in the Krasnodar Territory compared to the average in the USSR. Despite the stimulation of urban population growth in the region, the share of rural residents in Kuban exceeded the analogous figure in the country. This was due to the agrarian specificity and demand of agricultural products of the Krasnodar Territory. The authors claim that the socio-economic and cultural infrastructure of the village was modernized alongside the development of urban areas. During the period under review, the State policy for the development of the region has contributed to the preservation of the rural population through the creation of jobs and the promotion of rural lifestyles during seasonal agricultural activities. The authors assess the effectiveness of rural and urban development policies in the 1950s in the context of the demographic transformation in Kuban.
Gorbachev’s dry law as a radical measure to force sobriety on the Soviet man
The article deals with the dramatic situation in the USSR, which preceded the adoption of the 1985 normative document on the suspension of the development of total drinking and alcoholism. An analysis is made of numerous facts of asocial importance, which were the result of uncontrolled alcoholic products consumption by the population of the country. The author attempts to identify the reasons for the widespread abuse of alcohol, the rampant increase in alcoholism of different age groups, social and gender affiliation. At the same time, the effectiveness of various measures carried out within the framework of the State programme for the rehabilitation of the Soviet people is being assessed. The article provides comparative statistical material to identify the positive and negative results of the anti-alcohol campaign for the economy. Sober endeavours within the framework of cultural, educational and leisure activities are marked as an alternative to alcoholic lifestyle. Based on an analysis of economic, social, mental and other factors, the author arrives at a conclusion that a high degree of radicalism and directness were admitted in solving such an extremely complex, multi-part and delicate problem as alcohol consumption. It is inferred that the implementation of a comprehensive approach involving the use of cultural, educational, political, legal and propaganda resources in the fight against alcoholism of the population will strengthen the effectiveness of the policy of health protection of the nation.
Contribution of large families of the USSR to the victory during the Great Patriotic War as shown by the Karachay and other peoples
The article sets the task: based on examples and facts to show what contribution large families of the multinational state - the USSR - made during the Great Patriotic War, having sent up to 10 sons to the front to protect the Motherland. The vast majority of them died defending the Motherland. Their mothers found the strength to understand, to survive these irreparable losses, to continue to work for the benefit of the Fatherland. The present article attempts a scientific reflection of the contribution of families with many children to the Great Victory over fascist Germany. The author describes the socio-historical conditions in which admission to military service became an indicator of moral and ethical condition of conscripts. The article provides information on the number of Karachays dead during the Great Patriotic War. Based on the available archival materials and documents, the fate of the relatives of the dead soldiers is traced. It is concluded that the victory of the USSR in World War II over Hitler's Germany and the ideological doctrine of fascism was won through the consolidation of the efforts of the multinational people of the Soviet Union, and the conscious performance of military duty to the Fatherland by Soviet soldiers.
Nonresident settlements in the territory of modern-day Karachay-Cirkassia: emergence, formation and development (the second half of the 19th and the beginning of the 20th century)
This article describes how the so-called nonresident villages emerged in the territory of mainly Batalpashinsky County (Department) of the Kuban Region (contemporary territory of the Karachay-Circassia). The author discusses the conditions of their initial economic activity, and gives the number of the population in the newly formed settlements. The work mentions both villages based on the Slavic population and numerous villages and farmsteads formed by "foreign" settlers. The publication describes social structure of displaced persons and provides an analysis of socio-economic preferences that were granted to displaced persons in the early 20th century. During the reign of Alexander III the missionary activity of the Russian Orthodox Church in the region is intensified, accompanied by the active construction of monasteries. During the period under review, the internationalization of the present-day territory of Karachay-Circassia accelerated, leading to an increase in the size and change in the ethnic composition of the region. In particular, in the late 19th and early 20th centuries, Armenian, Jewish, Estonian and Greek settlements were founded in the mountain and foothills areas, which made a significant contribution to the development of agriculture in the region. The author concludes that the policy pursued during the period under review to encourage the resettlement of nonresidents has led to economic growth and the emergence of new sectors of the economy in Karachay-Circassia.
"Color revolutions": theoretical concept and political experience
An attempt is undertaken to make a historical analysis of the theoretical concept and the implementation of the "color revolution" scenario in the modern policy. The "color revolution" is a form of struggle for political power. A brief analysis of the technological cycle of the "color revolution" is given. The relevance of the study lies in the nature and results of the current "color revolutions," which lead to the destruction of the political systems of States and often of States themselves. The aim of the study is to identify different approaches in determining the nature and characteristics of the phenomenon under study. The formulation of the definition of "color revolution", which contains universal signs of this phenomenon, will allow researchers to consolidate their positions. "Color revolutions" are a systemic phenomenon involving various "soft power" techniques using information infrastructure, which must be taken into account in describing the phenomenon under study. Technologies for carrying out "color revolutions" are presented and conceptually analyzed in the present work. The author concludes that "color revolutions" have a high destructive potential for the socio-political system of the country, devalue the authority of the political regime and exacerbate the internal problems of the State.
Tleptsok R.A., Alkhaov A.A.
Activities of General N.N. Raevsky on the Black Sea coastline (1838-1841)
The article is devoted to the activities of General N.N. Raevsky on the East Coast of the Black Sea, which was of great importance for the creation and further functioning of the Black Sea coastline. The article addresses the complex context of events that preceded the foundation of the Black Sea coastline: the participation of N.N. Raevsky in expeditions for the construction of its fortifications, his policy towards the coastal mountain population and the practical results of his military and administrative activities. A detailed analysis is given of the military-political activity of N.N. Raevsky in strengthening the Black Sea coastline. The authors describe the positive trade and economic effect on the development of the Black Sea coast of the North-West Caucasus, obtained as a result of building peaceful relations with the mountain population. Attention is also paid to the circumstances of the forced resignation of N.N. Raevsky from the post of head of the Black Sea coastline. It is concluded that the military-administrative policy of N.N. Raevsky during the period under study was pragmatic for the Russian Empire and allowed strengthening peaceful relations with the Circassian population and improving sanitary and epidemic conditions of life of Russian soldiers in garrisons of coastal fortifications.
Value and world view foundations of traditional environmental culture of Adygs
Researchers regularly turn to ethno-ecological traditions in an attempt to understand ways to maintain a balance with the habitat of different peoples. In the context of the current environmental crisis, the relevance of scientific search for a solution of these problems is very high. The article deals with the traditions of the ecological culture of Adygs and describes the complexity of the natural and climatic conditions of the territory, and enormous species diversity, requiring special approaches in building relations with nature. Thousands of years of development of this natural complex allowed the Adyg ethnos to build ecology-protected relations with the environment, reflected in rites and traditions. These include the formation of sacred groves and forest gardens transformed into the sacral space of the Adyg ethnos, special approaches to soil treatment and crop rotation, hunting traditions supporting species diversity and careful attitude to water resources. The author, analyzing the traditions of the environmental culture of Adygs, concludes that the preservation of balance with the natural environment was based on the law of fair exchange. Spiritual ties were built based on the nature worshipping and provided by rituals and rites. It is concluded that the ecological culture of Adygs has formed the optimal model of interaction in the "man-society-nature" system.
Towards the 155th anniversary of the end of the Caucasus War: the year of 1864 in the contexts of memory policy and synchronous history
The article is an author's reflection in connection with the 155th anniversary of the end of the Caucasus War and the accession of the North Caucasus to the Russian Empire. The Caucasus War is the most painful event of Adygs’ (Circassians) historical memory. Its symbolic objects are Krasnaya Polyana (the last hotbed of Circassian resistance at the end of the war) and tragedy of Mahajiranism (mass exodus of the people outside the historical homeland) closely related to the war. The purpose of the article is to analyze the final year of the war - 1864 - in the contexts of the Great History, and to comprehend the Circassian tragedy in the general flow of historical time from the point of view of the policy of memory and synchronous history. Viewing the "long 19th century" from the height of the bird 's fly, bringing its many characteristics existing in the scientific literature, the author gradually narrows the field of view and then focuses attention on the events and processes of one year, thus creating a multilevel and multifaceted panorama of the world of that time. The conclusion is justified that today the Adygs need a reflection of the present, and the preservation of the historical memory of the Circassian tragedy should not necessarily be focused on the problem whether or not it was recognized as an act of genocide by the Russian imperial government.
Khut L.R., Cheucheva A.K.
Digital history in the Anthropocene Era
The article attempts to analyze the changes taking place in historical knowledge and historical science in connection with the process of digitization (digitalization) and the emergence in the modern thesaurus of the concept of “Digital History”. In the era of the Anthropocene, replacing the Holocene, the human activity has an increasing impact on the change of the Earth's ecosystem, as well as on all areas of scientific knowledge, including the historical one. The authors justify the idea that in the era of the Anthropocene professional historians have found themselves facing "challenges" that require adequate answers whether or not historical discipline possesses the sought out status of scientificality. One of the most serious "challenges" of this kind is the process of digitization and entry of historical science and education into the digital age. The authors state that the professional community of historians, using a global network infrastructure, integrates successfully into the digital space. Analyzing the historian's researches and educational experience in the contexts of digital history, the authors conclude that the historian's new tool kit associated with the digitalization process does not change the essence of historical research, which can be expressed by the words: "man about man".
The aul of Khakurinokhabl uprising in 1887: one story in the presentation of two contemporaries
The article is devoted to the poorly studied problem of the the Adyg population’s attitude to administrative and legal ruling by the Tsar’s administration in the first decades after the end of the Caucasus War. In addition, the author draws attention to the fact that the process of adapting Adygs to new realities was complex and ambiguous, which was reflected in the event assessment by contemporaries. The study pays special attention to the assessment of events by contemporaries preserved and recorded in writing. The author emphasizes the position of G.I.Sokolov, the head of the Maikop county, and Brantov Z.-hadzhi, the resident of Pshizov aul. The article makes a comparison in the description of the events and their assessment. The study notes the important role of local history in the creation of a collective biography of local societies, which include the inhabitants of Khakurinokhabl, the small Abadzekh aul. An analysis is made of issues of daily behavior of people and public consciousness, reflecting the mood of the Adyg population and resulting in confrontation and armed clash with representatives of the authorities in the aul. The final part of the article considers the consequences of the unrest influence on the situation of Adygs in the Russian Empire and further methods of the Tsar’s administration for the administrative and territorial transformation of the North Caucasus.
Scheujen E.A., Pocheshkhov N.A.
A.I. Denikin on the Civil War in the South-East of Russia (1918-1920): problems of mentalities
This article studies the mental and psychological processes displayed during the Civil War in the South-Eastern Russia. These processes have found reflection in the "Essays of Russian Confusion" of Anton Ivanovich Denikin, one of the leaders of the "White Cause," who offered in his work a systemic vision of the events taking place in the region. In recent decades, the history of the Civil War, genesis, evolution and essence of the concepts of "White Cause" and "White Movement" have attracted the close attention of researchers. Contemporary modernization of historical science has led to an expansion of researches carried out on this problem. Today the Civil War is studied based on historical-sociological, historical-anthropological, and historical-psychological approaches, which allow introducing changes in the sphere of mentalities, social sentiment and opinions into historical research. Research experience shows that the issue of mass consciousness is largely focused on the study of personal documents. The memories of participants and witnesses can become the main source for research into the social sentiment of various groups of the population. The civil war was presented to A.I. Denikin, in fact, by a diversified social process that led to the nature and scope of the joint actions of different groups of the population. In the sphere of its attention, along with strategic, political and economic questions, there were problems connected with moral and psychological state of the Russian society. Without a doubt, changes in the mass consciousness of society represent a unique object of study, reflecting the contradictory experience of social life in the extreme conditions of the Civil War in Russia.
Schneider W.G., Koichuev A.D.
The Lutheran community of Armavir in 1880-1930
The article deals with the history of the Lutheran community, which arose in Armavir of the Kuban region in 1880. The authors consider the most important features of the spiritual life of the Lutherans, including the specifics of the rites, the interaction of various Protestant denominations within the framework of the same city. The article focuses on the analysis of the causes why religious activities by the Lutherans faded in Armavir during the Soviet period, and considers the specific measures of local authorities that led to its complete cessation. The vast majority of the community members were Germans who moved to Kuban during the last third of the 19th century. The authors emphasize that the persecutions, to which the Lutherans were subjected, were not ethnically oriented. They were conducted due to the anti-religious policy of the Soviet state of the 1920’s and 1930’s. The article pays special attention to the fate of the Lutheran prayer house, which was an important factor in the ethnocultural and confessional community of Germans who lived in Armavir in the period under study. It is concluded that after the Decree of the Council of People's Commissars of 1918 on the Separation of the Church from the State entered into force, the process of gradual secularization of the Lutheran community of the city began in Armavir.
International forums of historians-caucasiologists: the tradition birth
One of the important indicators of the development of science, including historical, is the existence of a system of stable information and communication contacts, providing operational information on the nature of affairs in science, and on the interaction of participants in scientific activities. In many ways, the state of scientific communications is reflected in the level of efficiency of scientific research, and is a necessary condition for the formation of a creative environment, institutionalization of research work. By the end of the 20th and the beginning of the 21st centuries, there has been a need to constantly exchange the achieved research results, including at the regional level, within the framework of the intensively developing Russian historical science. In particular, several formats of the conferences have been formed in the North Caucasus to discuss the results achieved and prospects for the development of historical knowledge. Along with traditional meeting formats, such as scientific conferences, congresses, symposia, round tables, there appeared the International Forums of Historians-Caucasus Scientists, the purpose of which was to develop a strategy for studying the most pressing problems of Caucasus science. The initiative to hold forums belonged to the Black Sea-Caspian Regional Information and Analysis Center together with the Southern Federal University. Rostov-on-Don became the place of their holding. The article attempts to trace the process of building up the tradition of holding forums of Caucasus scientists as a platform for discussing the most topical issues of theory and methodology of Caucasus science. Thus, it has become possible to expand the range of research topics concerned, to establish a dialogue between Caucasus scientists, and to form an active and constructive exchange of views on many problems of history and culture of the Greater Caucasus.
Abdrakhimov E.F., Yusupov I.F.
Ethnic diversity in public authorities as an indicator of ethnos prestige
The article examines problems related to ethnic stratification and ethnic differentiation in the multi-ethnic region, and analyzes the processes affecting the status of the ethnic group and its prestige. The authors reveal trends in the representation of ethnic groups in State bodies in the late 20th and early 21st centuries, and provide rotation of the representation of ethnic groups in different sectors of production. The publication emphasizes that indigenous peoples, despite their quantitative and other characteristics, continue to be the main actors in the socio-political life of the country. The article highlights also that in contemporary society ethnic identity in its pure form does not act as an indicator of social status. However, it was in the post-Soviet period of our country that ethnic identity acquired independent importance, updated as belonging to the title people of post-Soviet States and national territorial subjects of the Russian Federation (higher status) or to national minorities (lower status). Attention is also focused on the fact that the most important indicator of the status and prestige of ethnic groups is their representation in the bodies of state power, and in its management structures and processes.
Zhade Z.A., Kumpilov T.M.
The politicization of Islam in the contemporary world (from the materials of Adyghea Republic)
The article analyzes the peculiarities of politicization of the Islamic factor in the Republic of Adyghea. In today's world, Islam is being actively politicized, becoming a real political force that has a decisive impact on mass consciousness and all spheres of public life, and determining the nature of both the regional and global political process. The authors draw attention to the fact that in recent years Russian scientists have made considerable efforts to understand the politicization of Islam in Russia and its regions. The peculiarity of Islam in Adyghea is that it has become a political and ethnocultural product of migration movements. One of the characteristics of the development of interfaith relations in the region over the past two decades has been the steady increase in the role of religion in society, which has led to a significant quantitative and qualitative growth of religious institutions. The authors substantiate that in the Republic of Adyghea Islam as a political factor is used in the interests of consolidation of the people and maintenance of internal stability in the region. Islam, directly or indirectly, affects all processes taking place in the Republic and the region as a whole. And gradually it is becoming a factor in the development of civil society. It is inferred that Islam is being actively politicized in the contemporary world, and this has become a real political force that affects the mass consciousness of believers, sociocultural, moral and ethical, socio-economic and political phenomena, determining the nature of both the regional and global political process.
Ilyinova N.A., Batmitova R.R.
The impact of Muslim migrants on the transformation of Islam in Adyghea: based on empirical research
The presented publication is devoted to the study of the transformation of Islam in such a region of the Russian Federation as the Republic of Adyghea. Islam in Adyghea is quite specific, is a synthesis with the folk culture of Adygs. The migration processes, the strengthening of which is linked to the intensification of globalization, have also affected Adyghea. The sociological survey has found that the sources of Islam in Adygs and migrant Muslims were quite different. The residents of Adyghea interviewed were rather wary of migrants, despite the fact that they were their co-religionists. The ways of showing faith in Adygs and Muslim migrants are different, the former classify themselves as believers, but the majority do not attend the mosque, do not read the Quran, while for the majority of Muslim migrants interviewed, these actions are mandatory. Thus, Muslim migrants who came to the region under study from various countries of the world, in the process of integration into the Adyg community, also have a certain impact on the Islam of Adygs. It is difficult today to clearly classify this impact, which is due to the lack of formation of the views of the Adygs themselves on the extent of the impact of Muslim migrants on the transformation of Islam in Adyghea, as well as the relatively small number of scientific studies on this subject.
Ilyinova N.A., Sokolov T.V., Tuguz F.K.
Public opinion of the region about the critical situation with Samshit Kolhidi: from the materials of sociological research
In this article, the authors view public opinion as a way of mainstreaming certain social problems and a means of influencing the adoption of certain socio-political decisions. The work is based on the author's sociological study carried out through online questionnaire. The purpose of this questionnaire was to find out whether the residents of Adyghea Republic and other subjects of the Russian Federation are aware about the situation with Samshit Kolchidi and dolmen, their importance, ways of their protection and preservation. The researchers also aimed not only to find out the opinion on the problem, but also to inform respondents about all the aspects of the problem. The results of the empirical study demonstrate that the majority of residents of different regions of Russia do not know about the situation with Samshit Kolchidi and dolmens. Information about the activities of the volunteer movement "Let’s Keep Roots" among respondents who took part in the survey is minimal. The participants of the survey agree that the media should pay close attention to the issue of Samshit Kolhidi and dolmens. The authors conclude that public opinion about Samshit Kolhidi and dolmens has not been formed yet, which should become the object of activity of the leadership and public of Adyghea Republic.
Kuznetsova A.V., Petrulevich I.A.
Urban mentality in the cultural space: socio- and linguocultural aspects
The article considers urban mentality from the point of view of sociology and linguoculturology, the unity of methodology of which is provided primarily by the most complex object of research. The methodological basis of the study was the linguosemiotic and intertextual methods of analysis of urban mentality. The description of the social situation, the understanding of the motivation of its participants, and the analysis of their daily aspirations, the system of norms and values makes it possible to argue that the category of urban mentality, despite its unclear theoretical content, applies to the description of the specifics of a particular city, its mental structures and everyday life. Urban mentality is also studied from the point of view of provinciality as one of the fundamental phenomena of pragmatism and axiology of urban lifestyle, norms and life guidelines of citizens. One of the main characteristics of urban mentality is provinciality, integrating the peculiarities of group perceptions of people about their residence in a space-time continuum. Authors draw a conclusion that the research of city mentality by means of the socio- and linguocultural analysis provides means for revealing a qualitative originality, specifics of urban lifestyle and features of cultural daily occurrence of the concrete city, taking into account historical memory of citizens.
Kukva E.S., Ashinova D.A.
Islam in Adyghea: the state and trends of change by the early 20th century
The article analyzes the main directions in development of the realm of religion in the Republic of Adyghea. The emphasis is placed on the peculiarities of religious identification processes among Muslims. The publication presents the results of the empirical study of Muslims of Adyghea, carried out in October-November 2019. Based on the obtained data, dominant trends in the change of religion of Muslims have been determined, one of which demonstrates the strengthening importance of such a function of religion as compensatorily analytical. Religious identity has also been found to retain previous positions, inferior to ethnic identity in the identification structure of Adyghea Muslims. Muslim identity in a situation of choice is almost three times inferior to ethnic identity. This trend is sustainable and has continued for a long time. The study identifies and analyzes the main lines of interaction between Islam and Orthodoxy in the Republic, which in general is conflict-free. It is considered as interaction of faiths at the official, formal level, and with extrapolation to interpersonal relations of Muslims and Orthodox Christians, but is not assessed as tense. The data of 2001 and 2019 mass surveys in Adyghea are compared. The authors conclude that there are no fundamental transformations in the functioning of Islam, which could affect the state of religious identity of Muslims.
Nekhay V.N., Nurakhmedova A.A., Teuchezh F.D.
Islamic community in the context of sociocultural transformation of the region
Based on the conducted sociological study, the authors disclose the peculiarities of perception of religious principles of Islam in the regional community of Adyghea. The Republic of Adyghea retains a moderate level of religious identity, which blend seamlessly in the structure of ethnoidentification processes. The results of the study show that traditional institutions act as a tool to maintain religious values, paternalize ethnoreligious values and contribute to the increasing importance of religion in the spiritual life of the Islamic community of the region. Of particular importance in incorporating the fundamental principles of Islam is the social environment of the believer. Based on the analysis of the attitude of the inhabitants of the Republic of Adyghea towards the basic values of Islam, the authors conclude that the role of rituals in the process of strengthening the religious identity of Muslims is increasing. At the same time, the study shows the stability of elements of secularism in the traditional culture of Adygs. It is also confirmed that the conceptual principles of Islam contribute to the weakening of the destructive influence of religious radicalism and have the creative potential to strengthen interfaith harmony in the region. It is inferred that in the Republic of Adyghea, the Muslim community has managed to incorporate religious, ethnocultural and civic values into the structure of daily life in its axiological system and behavior.
Symbolism of the FIFA World Cup mascot as one of the directions of the national branding a country
The relevance of the study lies in the theoretical and practical need to understand the results of the 2018 World Cup in Russia, which brought not only economic profit, but also had a favorable impact on the domestic national image of the country. One element of national branding is the creation of an official mascot (maskot) of sports events. The mascot is seen as an iconic-symbolic element of the country's overall symbolic branding model. The author addresses the analysis of the history of mascots, in particular, the symbolic-value analysis of the mascot of the 1988 World Cup in France - Footix, as well as the mascot of 2018 FIFA World Cup in Russia - Zabivaki. The key conclusion is that if the official mascot as a symbolic design reflects deep historical and cultural strata of the values and meanings of the nation, this symbol will have much greater branding value in the minds of respondents in the context of cross-cultural communications between countries. When choosing a mascot in the context of cross-cultural marketing communications, it is necessary to take into account the factor of cultural distance between representatives of different countries in terms of "reading" the values and meanings of this symbolic design. Marketers should develop a strategy for positioning the selected mascot, taking into account both external and internal marketing environment factors.
Tyurikov A.G., Ten Yu.P.
Features of the formation of the national brand of the country in the context of increasing competition in the era of globalization (a case of France)
The relevance of the study is due to the need for scientific and theoretical analysis of the problem of "equality" of national brands in conditions of intensification of competition between countries in economy, investment and business. It is justified that thanks to the foundations of their national identity, brands of countries have more extensive cultural resources than any other type of brand. A national brand is defined as a sign-symbolic design, interpretation of values and meanings of which by a consumer influences behavior in terms of preference and evaluation of products of a given country. We have chosen the France's national brand as the subject of the study. The work analyzes macro indicators showing the achievements of the national economy of the French Republic. We also consider the history of solving the problem of strengthening the national brand through government measures aimed at attracting investments in the national economy. The experience of France in designing a national brand shows that the effect of investing in national brands and increasing the value of the country's brand is negative in the short term but positive in the long term with regard to the growth of the economic performance of countries. Analysis of this experience can become the basis for modeling of the brand of Russia in the context of the strategy of promotion to the international market.
Hlabystova N.V., Netrebko E.N.
Institute of higher education as a factor in maintaining social inequality
The article analyzes theoretical approaches by P. Bourdieu, S. Bowles, H. Gintis, J.C. Passeron and B. Bernstein explaining the mechanisms of preservation of social inequality by the institute of education. Reproduction theory by P. Bourdieu, S. Bowles, H. Gintis and J.C. Passeron considers the development of different universal personality traits in the process of learning from representatives of different classes. Thus, representatives of the upper class in the process of training shape such personal features as independent work and creativity, develop skills to make decisions, that is, all those skills that are necessary to take a place in the higher layers at the top of the social hierarchy. While pupils from working families are taught to humility, obedience and observing external rules. In this article, the authors analyze data of Federal State Statistics Service, the report on results of selection committee of the national research university Higher School of Economics, statistics of admission in 2018 of the Kuban State University of Technology, as well as the results of sociological researches: questioning and interviewing "Applicant of the Kuban State University of Technology”. Based on this analysis, the authors conclude that despite open access to higher education, in modern Russia, there are a number of factors for all sectors of society that limit access to higher education by young people. The main factors include the social status of the family, material well-being and place of residence. Thus, higher education can be considered as a social institution that preserves and reproduces the class structure of society.
Migration processes in Russian modern society and their assessment by Russians
This work deals with migration as an inevitable phenomenon of the world community of the twenty-first century. In order to study thoroughly the essence of migration processes, the author considers the evolution of the term "migration" in Russian modern sociological science. The essential characteristics of the migration movement are also clarified, which is achieved by comparing such types of population movement as natural and migratory. The author notes that migration has a significant impact on the processes taking place in all spheres of society, which is due to the wide range of functions performed by migration. Based on the studies carried out at different periods by such authoritative organizations as the Public Opinion Foundation, Levada-Center, and the All-Russian Center for Public Opinion Study, the author traces the attitude towards the migration of Russians. The author shows that Russians point out a number of spheres of life of the Russian society in which, in their opinion, migrants should not be present. Also, they call a number of social spheres to the presence of migrants in which Russians are more loyal. It is concluded that Russians are not opposed to the entry into the country of Russian-speaking, young and educated migrants, while the entry of other categories of citizens of foreign countries, in their opinion, should be restricted.
Neoarchetypes in contemporary culture
The article discusses the evolution of archetypes in the context of dialectically interconnected processes of uneven development of social systems - globalization and localization and adaptation of local to global in the form of glocalization. Multivariance of sociocultural processes allows people to preserve multiculturalism of sociocultural space as one of sociocultural resources of progressive development. The progressive movement takes place both in the form of advanced development basing on innovative processes and in the form of throwbacks to archaic forms filled with updated and symbolized content. The author considers the transformation of archetypes against the background of the dynamics of modern sociocultural development and their transformation into neoarchetypes under the influence of changes in the axiological sphere of culture as a result of morphogenesis processes. Neoarchetypes are a way to adapt archetypal matrices to new sociocultural conditions, new symbolic filling with meanings correlated with the contemporary state of society and vectors of its sociocultural development. Archetypes, which retain their importance in modern society because they reflect perennial models of human relationships, adapt to modern cultural normative and value regulators. They are complemented by neoarchetypes, the content and symbolic significance of which are aimed at updating traditional normative and value models of sociocultural practices in modern life.
"Medical Landing" as a cultural form of social medical volunteering
The article investigates the process of forming the value foundations of the personal culture of medical students during their participation in volunteer activities. The author describes the concept of "medical volunteerism" and its directions. The experience of the student social action "Medical Landing" is analyzed from the cultural position. The article contains the results of a study in which the respondents are students of the Pacific State Medical University of the Ministry of Health of Russia. This study is aimed at identifying the role of volunteerism in the formation of the personal culture of future doctors. The author notes that the special direction of volunteerism in our country is activities in the field of health care. Medical volunteering includes various ways to help and support patients of medical institutions, as well as measures to provide vocational guidance to schoolchildren in the medical sphere. For development and promoting voluntary (volunteer) activity, very promising is the medical cultural and educational space where socially important lines of the personality of future medical specialist are formed. The author states that the education of universal spiritual values at students of medical university is quite a pressing problem, the way of solving which passes through the inclusion of students in medical volunteerism. At the same time, the author argues that the phenomenon of medical volunteerism has a sociocultural essence and exerts a positive influence on the volunteer medical student in the formation of spiritual national values. Almost 50% of the students who took part in the study noted the direct relationship between participation in the student social action "Medical Landing" and the acquisition of positive qualities (traits) of character (change in views on the surrounding world). They are ready in the future to be consciously included in volunteer activities, which makes it possible to form effectively and consistently the value foundations of the personal culture of future doctors.
Today and yesterday. About A.K. Shaparova's book "Political Repression of Circassians in the North Caucasus (1918-1940)", Nalchik, 2017 - 822 pp.
This deeply meaningful and perfectly designed book was published two years ago, unfortunately with an announced circulation of only 300 copies. The book is somewhat unusual in its structure. The author's text in it is relatively small. The vast majority of the texts are memories of people who have been subjected to repression - arrests, many years of camps, exile or forced to flee and hide from them, people whose parents and relatives were innocent and killed or tortured both directly by their guardians, and by hunger, diseases, unsustainable work and inhuman living conditions. But there are many lines in these same memories about how the ones who managed to survive in this monstrous butcher of Bolshevism and Stalinism, have found strength for decent and noble work, often under changed names and far from their places of origin for great achievements in their work and for universal respect in society. They have found strength for feats while defending great homeland from the threat of foreign enslavement, and for realization of their spiritual nobility and the best human qualities so highly standing in the Circassian mentality and vision of the world and man in it. The book is written in Russian, but some sections and documents are given also in the Adyg (Kabardino-Circassian) original and in English translation.