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#2 / 2019
Representatives of the mountain people of the North Caucasus as a part of Polish Army (1918-1939)
The paper deals with the questions related to military service of representatives of the mountain people of the North Caucasus as a part of the Polish Army in 1918 through 1939. Work consists of three blocks. The first block investigates the problem of participation of North Caucasians in the Soviet-Polish War (1919-1921) on side of Poland. The second block explores the service of officers-mountaineers as a part of Polish Army during the interwar period. The third block studies their fighting way after the beginning of World War II, as well as the main milestones of the biography of those who survived after defeat of the Polish Army in 1939.
Ethnopolitical conflicts as a historical precondition of formation of culture of international communication and its role in the state youth policy (the case of the Kabardino-Balkarian Republic)
Based on the actual material and taking into account results of researches of representatives of various humane directions, this work investigates the development of the international relations in the transition period. The author deals with the development of ethnopolitical processes and interethnic relations in Russia and regions and discloses the relevance of formation of culture of international communication as factor of social development, its value and a role in consolidation of society. The publication raises the questions of ethnocultural education of younger generation, the main directions, the purposes, tasks and implementation methods of the state programs adopted in the Kabardino-Balkarian Republic in the sphere of national, cultural and educational policy. The author arrives at a conclusion that it is expedient to consider these questions in the context of the state youth policy.
"The Circassian question" in activity of the Kabardian public organizations at the end of the 20th century
The paper shows that "the Circassian question" was one of the main in activity of the most influential Kabardian public organizations at the end of the 20th century. The Kabardian public organizations got support from the Supreme Council of Kabardino-Balkaria according to the solution of "the Circassian question", but they could not achieve the solution of the matter at the federal and international levels. During democratic transformations in the country, the Kabardian public organizations’ activities related to the solution of "the Circassian question" indicate that historical memory of the Adyghe people keeps up the most large-scale tragedy in the history of the people - eviction of its most part to the Ottoman Empire. In addition, the problem of the divided Adyghe ethnos, most of which lives abroad, is still relevant.
Nakh’s ethnonym of Kistens
In studying past history of the people it is necessary to study not only its self-name, but also the names given it by his neighbors. One of such names of Nakh people (Chechen, Ingush) is the ethnonym of "Kistens". This paper is devoted to a research of an ancient ethnonym of "Kistens".
Change of lamellar shearing in the Upper Paleolithic layers (40-12 thousand years ago) of the Mezmay Cave (North-West Caucasus)
Lamellar splitting already at the very beginning of the Upper Paleolithic (UP) in the Caucasus (40-38 thousand years ago) differs in prevalence of lamellae over plates. This trend remains unalterable up to the end (12 thousand years ago) of the Epi-Paleolithic (EP). Studying trends in changes of characteristics of lamellar samples for about 30 thousand years and reconstruction of change of splitting procedure is a problem of the present research. For this purpose, we used materials of the Mezmay Cave, which is the main monument of UP in the Caucasus now. Results of studying show that changes in the sizes and proportions of shears follow a certain law. Use of experimental data allows us to interpret the revealed changes. They are possibly due to the change of the shear procedure. Especially important changes happen in the Epi-Paleolithic (after 16 thousand years ago).
Belashova Ya.Yu., Nurakhmedova A.A.
Virtuality in modern social perception: sociocultural analysis
The paper investigates the current state of information processes in society and their impact on trajectories of personal self-realization. Author's researches on the prevailing types of social knowledge have revealed the following: virtualization of the sphere of self-realization, firstly, is a protective reaction of the personality; secondly, it is stimulated with external factors. This position is the initial basis through which there is a further consideration of trends of shift of the sphere of personal self-realization, for example, to the sphere of online games. In the context of the developed analysis of category of virtuality the authors of this publication carry out the theoretical review of the main trends related to factors of social knowledge of modern society. It is proved that for the last decades there was a radical shift towards the mediated social perception that is connected with active information technology development. The authors prove that increase in intensity of information communication leads to an intensification of virtual aspect of social perception. In this context the general assessment of the existing trends is made, as well as prospects of social regulation are considered.
Germasheva T.M., Rachinskaya N.V., Fedorova E.R.
View of the population of South Korea of the situation, which developed on the Korean Peninsula
An analysis is made of research results of the attitude of the South Korean population towards the events developed on the Korean Peninsula, as well as towards prospects of a denuclearization of North Korea. The authors arrive at a conclusion that in the main weight the population of South Korea considers uniting South and North Korea the obligatory purpose, however depending on age, extent of support of the idea to create a unified Korea changes.
Factors of the attitude towards category of justice in public consciousness: statement of a problem
One of the most important conditions of achievement of stability of public structure is establishment of legal nature of the relations in society. Formation of the constitutional state is the major step on the way to optimize structure of the public relations. However, possibilities of society on establishment of legal relations directly depend on readiness of the population to overcome criminal schemes of social interaction. Here of key importance is a question of what attitude of members of society towards the area of the law in general and a justice system in particular. This publication puts a question about the attitude towards justice in the public consciousness and factors influencing it. The analysis of this question results in allocation of such aspects of a problem as compliance of a standard system to needs of the population, influence of mentality on readiness of participation in legal practices, as well as the nature of representation of justice in public consciousness (which includes results of personal experience of members of society and the maintenance of the stereotypes which took roots in social culture). The author explores features of each of these factors, as well as their correlation in formation of the attitude towards justice. Domestic social outlook and refraction of legal problems in it are investigated. The author proves the point of view according to which the reasons of the current difficulties are substantially connected with a condition of the cultural and information environment of the Russian society.
Zhuykov A.A., Kasparov A.R., Nurakhmedova A.A.
Virtual conflicts in social networks of the Internet as a threat to information security
In the post-industrial society of the 21st century of great importance is the state of information security, as high-quality information is the determining factor of the state of society, its progressive development. A key element of post-industrial society is the Internet, which combines the features of mass, group and individual communication. It is the social networks of the Internet that integrate three types of communication, becoming not only a virtual platform for clarifying the relations of competing parties, but also a tool for transferring a virtual conflict into the real, everyday world. Actualization of such a mechanism poses a threat to information security.
Political regulation in modern society: problems, factors, prospects
Many researchers call the modern period unique in view of unprecedented high-quality and quantitative change of public processes and conditions of their course. The structure of society continuously becomes more complicated, along with it dynamics of the public relations increases. Many social processes not just reach the level of self-organization – they gradually get out of the control of the government that is connected with impossibility of coverage of so complex system of interaction at the level of political structure of society. It leads to the fact that more and more problematic is a social regulation directed to creation of functional balance between the main public institutes. This paper discusses the changes, which happened in society during the last century, and their impact on conditions of the political power implementation. Major factors of political regulation are considered. The analysis of historical transformation of these factors is carried out. Within system consideration of social processes it is proved that in the current conditions there is a gradual replacement of the state from a number of social spheres. Differences between the mediated and direct regulation of social processes are analyzed. It is proved that the modern political power needs to expand an arsenal of tools of impact on social processes at the expense of methods of indirect influence. The high importance of institute of science and, in particular, social knowledge as factor of creation of effective strategy of political regulation is substantiated.
Zhuykov A.A., Kasparov A.R., Maschenko I.V.
Threats of information security as factor of the social conflicts in post-industrial society: sociological analysis
Post-industrial society is characterized by deep transformations of social structure owing to what the classless system of stratification with a set of social-group distinctions is formed. Such design in general corresponds to the concept of open society. However, it is unstable – as distinct from the estates and class ones. For this reason in post-industrial society, the considerable danger is constituted by the social conflicts, which can arise, including, due to violations of information security – at macro- and microlevels of society.
Negative social factors of existence of elderly people in contemporary society
The social status of elderly people is defined by a wide range of factors comprising the nature of culture, a condition of the main public institutes and the dynamics of the public relations. The latter includes both intensity of social interaction and speed of social changes. Within the current situation, consecutive complication of a social status of elderly people is noted. It is connected with a condition of all listed above factors. Increase in transformational dynamics results in discrepancy of social expectations and social skills of a real situation. Violations in activity of the main social institutes lead to deterioration of the situation of elderly people and reduction of number of resources available to them. Finally, the formation of a negative image of the elderly person connected with arrangement of emphases on the moment of loss of personal opportunities has negative effect both on the external attitude towards elderly people, and on the nature of their self-determination. In the present publication, these problems are analyzed in terms of a question of the direction in which the policy on improvement of a social status of elderly people can be carried out. The point of view, according to which the institutional sphere and area of social perception of elderly people become the priority directions, is proved.
Kombaev A.V., Yumozhapov G.S.
Serving sentence by convicts in corrective labor colonies today: feelings of convicts who received punishment for the first time and experience in interaction with "the new world"
The paper describes feelings of convicts who received punishment for the first time in the form of isolation from society with serving sentence in a maximum security penal colony. A research objective is to describe social structure, a part of which is the person who got to places of detention, feelings of convicts in the new world of informal practices of interactions, and internal informal practices of convicts interaction.
The research was conducted in maximum security penal colony No. 1 of Gusinoozersk of the Republic of Buryatia. This closed establishment contains the citizens serving sentence for the first time. The deep semi-structured interview was used as a research method. Convicts were selected proceeding from duration of their term of serving sentence. With assistance of the staff of penal system, selection of respondents depending on their hierarchy in informal social structure of places of detention was made. During the research, 10 interviews with convicts and 5 with the staff of corrective labor colony No. 1 were conducted.
Mediation as a tool to protect the civil rights
The paper deals with the institute of mediation and its role in protection of human civil rights. In this context, we study possibilities of the legal sphere on settlement of the conflicts and prove that mediation has the raised potential to stabilize the public relations. In the context of mediation value actualization, the current state of the professional sphere of mediators and its legal and institutional aspects in the Russian society is investigated.
The attitude of regional community towards a role the rescue services play in overcoming accident consequences
The paper deals with the questions of the population attitude towards a role the rescue services play in overcoming emergency situation and accident consequences. The relevance of this research lies in strengthening risks of approach of emergency situations of technogenic and natural character as a result of intensive development of scientific and technical capacity of society and intensive change of the environment. Object of the analysis is the regional society, and the subject is the level of its involvement in emergency situations and the attitude towards the activity of rescue services. The methodology of this research is formed based on the sociological analysis assuming to examine subject domain differentially in terms of age groups of the population. Collecting primary sociological information was made by method of sociological poll in the form of questioning. Research objectives included identification of real indicators of the population involvement in emergency situations; definition of the attitude of respondents towards the level of danger of different types of accidents to society and personality; and creation of a model of the ideal type of the employee of rescue services, which developed in collective consciousness. Based on the results of this research, it was concluded that the hypothesis formulated at the beginning of holding sociological poll was legally valid: the most part of the population is in one way or another involved in emergency situations of natural and technogenic character; there are high requirements to employees of the Ministry of Emergency Situations from society, while the population has a weak idea of the service. In society, there is understanding that the level of readiness of society for the solution of tasks of prevention of emergency situations depends substantially on the personnel capacity of governing bodies for civil defense and emergency situations. Need of continuous interaction of the population with the staff of rescue services causes high requirements to their professional and personal image.
Petrov V.N., Kantemirova I.B.
Phenomenon of social exclusion / inclusion in the aspect of educational activity of children with limited health opportunities
In modern Russian reality, the problem of social exclusion / inclusion of children with limited opportunities of health and disability is updated. Of particular importance is the solution of a complex of tasks of inclusion of this social group in the general educational environment, personal development and successful professional self-realization. To solve these tasks, it is required, along with practical actions, to continue theoretical-methodological study of understanding the essence of the phenomenon of social exclusion / inclusion, and researches of ways to expand a social inclusion of children with limited health opportunities and disability through an education system. The authors make an analysis of the basic concepts (exclusion, inclusion, the integrated and inclusive education), and present classification of social barriers as forms of influence on social exclusion of children with limited health opportunities and disability. In the conclusion, it is inferred that there is a need to continue scientific and practical searches for sociologists and teachers studying a phenomenon of exclusion / inclusion in educational process.
Plotnikov V.V., Udzhukhova B.A.
Development of communication technologies as factor of contemporary culture
Culture is continuously developing and transforming. The intensity of this process during various historical periods is not identical. Now the question about extremely high rates of cultural dynamics is put even more often. This defines interest in the reasons and factors leading to so substantial increase in intensity of cultural processes. This paper examines the value of technologies of imprinting, reproduction and transfer of information as factor of cultural development. New types of cultural products, the possibility of appearance of which is connected with emergence of new forms of communicative activity, are analyzed. It is proved that development of the communication sphere leads to extensive cultural changes, which have not only quantitative, but also qualitative value. The paper also analyzes the main technologies of communication and their influence on cultural development. At the end of the publication, a number of the problems related to the current state of cultural processes caused by development of the sphere of information communication are designated.
Television as a tool to control modern social processes: phenomenological aspect of the problem
The paper puts the question about need to form the efficient social factors promoting stabilization of a system of the public relations. The area of social consciousness is considered as one of such factors. In the light of the put problem, the author tells about need to form constructive principles of social outlook at members of society. In the course of the theoretical review of major factors of formation of social outlook, a role the television plays in its change and development is revealed. The publication proves that the television represents one of the main channels of acquisition of the mediated social experience that makes decisive impact on formation of an individual social picture of the world. The author examines prospects of application of television channel of information influence as the tool to optimize cultural and information processes in society. A conclusion is drawn that in the current conditions the field of television broadcasting conceals in itself both essential risks and serious opportunities for implementation of social regulation.
The attitude towards the law enforcement agencies in public consciousness: state and major factors
The attitude towards law enforcement agencies is one of the most important factors of establishment of law and order. This is due to the fact that degree of efficiency of their functioning strongly depends on level of credibility to law enforcement agencies. In addition, ideas of powerful law-enforcement structure are an additional deterrent for members of society, inclined to criminal acts. This paper deals with the features of the contemporary attitude towards law enforcement agencies. Sociohistorical, functional, social and information factors of formation of the attitude towards the law-enforcement sphere are investigated. Major factors of formation of the positive attitude towards law enforcement agencies in modern society are analyzed. High potential of impact on the attitude towards law enforcement agencies through area of cultural products is demonstrated.
Shadzhe A.Yu., Ilyinova N.A., Kukva E.S.
Transformation of the gender relations in the North Caucasus in sociological measurement
The paper clarifies some aspects of transformation of the gender relations in Russia and in the North Caucasus. Results of sociological researches in the sphere of the gender relations are analyzed. Being guided by quantitative (questioning) and qualitative (a method of the included observation and deep interview) methods, features of spiritual and moral values of the Caucasian woman are revealed. The conclusion is drawn that the gender outlook of the Caucasian woman is significantly determined with her age; the personal identity is complicated and multilayered. The Adyghe woman at mature age seeks to combine harmoniously norms of an adygstvo with the strategies of social and cultural life in the conditions of the present; the younger generation of the Adyghe women is opened to the value world of the present.
Yakovleva T.N., Leonova O.V.
Readiness of University graduates for professional mobility (the case of the Astrakhan State University)
The paper substantiates the relevance of studying the processes related to professional mobility of youth in contemporary society. In order to assess readiness of youth for professional mobility, the research is conducted among graduates – bachelors at the Astrakhan State University. An analysis is made of the closest plans of professional self-determination of graduates, readiness for changes in professional activity and level of confidence of graduates in further employment.
Based on the results of this research, the authors draw a conclusion that graduates of contemporary higher education institution are ready to professional mobility: to changes of a profession, business occupation and to territorial movement for the sake of interesting work.