The Bulletin of the Adyghe State University,<br />
the series “Region Studies: Philosophy, History, Sociology, Jurisprudence, Political Sciences and Culturology” The Bulletin of the Adyghe State University,
the series “Region Studies: Philosophy, History, Sociology, Jurisprudence, Political Sciences and Culturology”
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#3 / 2019


  • Babich I.L.
    Pages of biography of diplomat V.N. Gadzhemukov

    The article is devoted to the fate of the first Adyghe diplomat-orientalist V.N. Gadzhemukov, who worked in the Ottoman Empire before 1917. After the revolution, Gadzhemukov with his family came out to France. This article is the first work about V.N. Gadzhemukov, based on interviews with descendants (Paris, France). The aim of this article is to describe the history of the Gadzhemukov family. At the age of eleven, his father was given as an amanate to the Black Sea Cossack army. This determined his own fate and the fate of his children (7 people). This work discusses the main stages of V.N. Gadzhemukov’s diplomatic career until 1917. The article is study of the life of V.N. Gadzhemukov in 1917-1920 (Caucasus), in 1920-1922 (Constantinople, Turkey), and finally, during the emigration in France (1923-1956, Marseille, Sainte-Genevieve-des-Bois). From 1904 to 1916, V.N. Gadzhemukov worked in the various Consulates in the Middle East (The Ottoman Empire). He became an experienced diplomat and orientalist. In 1916, he was the Colonel in Russian Army. In the years 1917-1919, he began sociopolitical activity: V.N. Gadzhemukov became a member of the Kuban Regional Council. During the Civil War, he participated in battles as a Colonel of the White Army. In 1920-1922, he worked as a Consul in Constantinopole in the Russian Diplomatic Mission. The aim of this article is also to study the life of V.N. Gadzemukov in France from 1922 to 1956. The author has drawn a conclusion that the good career of the first Adyghe diplomat and orientalist was broken with the revolutionary events in the Russian Empire and the establishment of Soviet power, which forced Vasily Nikolaevich Gadzhemukov to come out to France. For many years, he lived in Marseille quietly, without work and social and political activity despite he was a bit more than 40 years old.

    pdf 15-22.pdf  (157 Kb)

  • Burykina L.V.
    Adaptation resources of Moldovan colonists in economic and sociocultural space of the North-West Caucasus in the post-reform period

    The article analyzes the problem of colonization of the North-West Caucasus by Moldovan settlers during the post-reform period. The time, reasons and circumstances of their appearance in this territory vary. An important feature of the resettlement movement to the North-West Caucasus was that the region had a local (multiethnic) population, and Moldovan migrants, by confessional affiliation - Orthodox, moved in parallel or joint groups with waves of migrants from the European part of Russia. However, representatives of earlier resettlement flows often perceived the newly arriving colonists from the perspective of old residents, which further exacerbated social relations in the region. Migration processes have caused complex sociocultural transformations in the North-West Caucasus among both allochthonic and autochthonous populations. A characteristic feature of the post-reform period is the definite duality of imperial power in solving the resettlement problem. Evidences of such behavior are legislative acts expressing the intention to carefully control the resettlement movement because of its need, and documents that are in fact contrary to it. The article identifies the difficulties of the process of migrant adaptation, and considers the contribution of Moldovans to the economic and socio-cultural development of the region. The long-standing functioning of the small Moldovan diaspora in the North-West Caucasus was primarily due to the preservation of the cultural identity of Moldovan colonists, which supported the viability of this ethnic organism and was manifested in the preservation of the native language, ethno-national culture, denominational affiliation and ethnic identity. The distance from the homeland of ancestors was made up for by a hypertrophic desire to preserve the national culture, to support its development and to be persistent towards assimilation. The author emphasizes that the leading trend here was not mass borrowing, but inter-ethnic integration, which led to the formation of a single economic and sociopolitical space. The study of the migration of the Moldovan population to the North-West Caucasus, the identification of the mechanisms of identification and the processes of ethnic recognition that accompanied the resettlement movement is far from complete and is an important task of contemporary historical science.

    pdf 23-31.pdf  (113 Kb)

  • Emtyl R.Kh.
    Sultan Khan-Girey: on the status of Adyghe (Circassian) women in society

    The article, based on foreign evidence, oral folk creativity and the works of S.Khan-Girey, considers the status of the Adyghe woman in the 13th through 19th centuries. The process of transformation of the "women's issue" in the works of foreign scientists and travellers has become the basis for the retrospective study, which was carried out by the Adyghe educator and folklorist. The earlier myth of Adyghe woman as a social entity deprived of legal status underwent reassessing through the provision of ethnographic and historical materials. Noting the primary role of a woman in the performance of economic tasks, the Adyghe educator consistently advocates the idea that it is impossible to preserve the traditional family life of Adyghes. He opts for the supporters of the opinion that has developed due to the ambivalently interpreted tradition of payment of kalym for the bride, involving the development of relations in line with the complete subordination and absolute dependence of the wife on the husband and his relatives. The understanding of a woman's status-role disposition is exacerbated by the functional requirements of the adates and norms of the Muslim law. The woman in the representation of S. Khan-Girey possesses all attributes of a full member of the Adyghe society and realizes her subjectness through the principles of reverence, respect and chivalry towards her. Moreover, respectful attitude towards women is built into the structure of the ethnic mentality of Adyghes and is presented in the spiritual space of Adyghe society with extrapolation to modernity. Based on the the analysis of these materials, the author concludes that men have a respectful attitude towards the female part of society, which is contrary to the well-established view of the disenfranchisement and humiliation of Circassian women.

    pdf 32-36.pdf  (81 Kb)

  • Ivashchenko A.S.
    Production and distribution of drugs in Asia in the second half of the 20th and early 21st centuries: reasons for intensification and countermeasures

    The article deals with one of the most important challenges of human society in general and Asian peoples, in particular, the problem of counteracting the production and distribution of drugs in Asian countries in the second half of the 20th century and the beginning of the 21st century. The study presents the scale of drug production in Asian countries, as well as the amount of income received by drug traffickers. In addition, the author draws attention to the extent of the drug threat not only to the development of the major drug-producing countries of Asia (Afghanistan, Myanmar, Laos), but also to the entire world community. The article analyzes the reasons for the intensification of drug production and distribution in the Asian countries of the Golden Crescent Zone and the Golden Triangle, as well as in the world as a whole. The study focuses on the factors that have led Afghanistan to produce a plant-based drug such as opium. The author also emphasizes measures to counter the production and distribution of drugs in Asia. The study notes the important role of the international community and a number of international organizations that help Asian countries to combat drug trafficking. The article compares, inter alia, the legislation of China and Russia concerning punishment for involvement in drug use. The author presents the intermediate results achieved by some Asian countries in combating the drug threat. The final part of the article analyzes the difficulties and problems that prevent a number of Asian countries from making significant progress in combating the production and distribution of drugs. The author arrives at a conclusion that those countries in Asia whose leaders have a clear political will to solve the above-mentioned problems, and which consistently combat corruption phenomena in the state apparatus, initiate the improvement of anti-drug legislation and carry out wide-ranging awareness-raising work on the fight against drugs, have achieved a marked turning point in the fight against the production and distribution of drugs.

    pdf 37-48.pdf  (139 Kb)


  • Bocharnikova I.S.
    Photography as a way of students’ self-presentation in social networks

    The relevance of the topic is determined by the fact that the digital age, innovative technologies expand the field of interaction between people, which undergoes qualitative changes. The information society with dominating visual communication has become a point of great scientific interest. Information space of a modern young man cannot be imagined without visual communication and social networks. Sometimes he prefers virtual life, avoiding real communication. Online interactions expand the possibilities for creating one's own identity, and provide a young man with a wide range of opportunities for self-presentation to other participants in on-line space. In particular, one of the most popular self-presentation tools are personal photos posted on personal pages of social networks. The author notes that photography is a visual language of a person’s message to others. Self-presentation through visualization is a unique way to response to the outside world, a way of identification, a desire to be understood and accepted by a certain community. Visual communication is becoming an integral part of life of a modern youth, while the private / public demarcation line is rapidly erasing in Internet space. The results of the study have shown that social networks are not only a way to communicate with old friends, but also a way to make new friends. Thanks to social networks, as was said above, photography from an intimate personal space passes into public space, and it becomes a mean for society to declare itself. We post on social networks the most diverse but significant for us photos: from small family events to professional achievements, from pets to nature contemplation. A person, both in real and in virtual world, primarily draws attention to the external image of a person. However, all users of social networks remain open and honest in front of their audience and use not only personal photos as the main photo of their page (avatar). In this case, a unique opportunity to manage opinions about himself arises. By manipulation, the desired image of “superman” or “fatal beauty” is constructed, which determines the peculiarity of virtual self-presentation.

    pdf 49-57.pdf  (117 Kb)

  • Vyalykh N.A.
    Social behavior patterns in health care as a subject of sociological researches in the South of Russia

    The Edict of the President of the Russian Federation "On the Strategy for the Development of Health Care in the Russian Federation until 2025” outlines significant challenges to national security in the field of public health along with positive indicators of the health care dynamics. These challenges include the dissatisfaction of the population with the availability and quality of health care, the substitution of free health care by paid services etc. Moreover, the need to activate social reserves of human capital and to ensure the conditions for active longevity of the Russians becomes actual in terms of the pension reform and the problem of aging of the society. The spontaneously formed existing practices of medical activity of the population can hardly be called positive, i.e. contributing to the positive dynamics of the health status of an individual, the members of most social groups and the society as a whole. The scientific significance of the subject area of the article is determined by the need to overcome the existing differences in understanding the social connotation of medical activity, its factors and models in terms of the transformation of the healthcare institution. In the article, the author discusses the main directions of scientific research of social behavior in health care in the South of Russia. The health protection behaviour is seen primarily as the result of people’s interpretation of the social situation of health problems and “attributing” to it the values and meanings in a socio-cultural context of health care system. The relevance of the article is due to the need to determine theoretical and applied background of social research in health care in order to understand the key tasks and mission of sociology in solving the health care problems in the South of Russia. It is too early to define the scientific school of health sociology in the South of Russia despite generation of regional growth points in the research of social problems in health care and that the experienced and young scientists are involved in this process. At the same time, if the representatives of various sciences of the South of Russia cooperate, it will cause the institutionalization of a scientific school specializing in the interdisciplinary research of social processes and social behavior patterns in health care in the southern macroregion.

    pdf 58-66.pdf  (141 Kb)

  • Zhade Z.A., Guchet lZ.H.
    Political identity as an integration resource of the multiethnic space in the South of Russia

    The article analyzes the potential of political identity in the consolidation of the Russian civil nation and integration of the multiethnic space in the South of Russia. The disintegration of some and the formation of new, often competing identities, not only with ethnic and religious, but also with regional content, as well as the restructuring of the established social order fill the political life of the region with specific meaning. Political identity as a level of social identity is eplored as an integrative and dynamic characteristic of a person in a political space. The formation and design of a political identity is a complex process in which an individual, social group or state can become subjects of political relations and interactions. On the one hand, its design is largely the result of the purposeful activities of the State, and identity politics, and, on the other hand, it is based on certain spontaneously formed political values, traditions and ideas. According to the authors, the identification of the main factors affecting the dynamics of identification processes will contribute to the development of mechanisms and technologies to strengthen Russian identity and its harmonization with other, often competing, levels of identity. The authors draw attention to the fact that political identity and integration processes based on it play a key role in the consolidation of the region, and contribute to the functioning of the South of Russia as a complete regional unit. The article emphasizes that integration in a multiethnic South Russian society is a full-fledged process that covers, on the one hand, geographical space, and, on the other hand, various spheres of social life. Integration processes are determined by the logic of socio-economic, political-legal, and sociocultural development, which encourages the multiethnic regions of the South of Russia to actively interact and converge in order to ensure regional security. The article shows the undisputed importance of strengthening political identity, the main purpose of which is to consolidate society for the integration of the multiethnic region. The authors arrive at a conclusion that the sociocultural and political integration of the region is the most important basis for stability in the South of Russia.

    pdf 67-75.pdf  (139 Kb)

  • Krylov D.S.
    Theoretical and methodological approaches to the study of domestic violence

    The presented article is devoted to the study of the phenomenon of domestic violence in modern Russian society. The article analyzes various theoretical and methodological approaches to the study of this issue. The author notes a number of theories developed by contemporary researchers, one of which is the structural theory of Jeff Hearn and M. Scheller, according to which the culture of patriarchy has sociostructural consequences, forming and recording a constant difference between the status positions of men and women in society and the family. The paper also presents gender theory, which defines gender as a structured pattern of social relations between the sexes, manifested both in interpersonal interaction within the family and in the institutional structure of society. Thus, gender theory considers the social relations between men and women characteristic of modern society as bearing the seal of historically formed sociocultural stereotypes whose cultural genesis goes back to the deep past. In the article, the author notes that the application of a sociocultural approach provides an opportunity to better understand the integration of attitudes towards domestic violence in a broad cultural context. The sociocultural approach focuses not only on the values underlying intra-family and gender relations, but also on structural, institutional and environmental factors that collectively influence the spread or reduction of intra-family violence in society. According to the author, the specificity of the sociocultural approach is the integration of all these factors into a single methodological structure, making it possible to examine the practices of family violence in the broadest context of social and cultural processes, as well as the long-term legacy of traditions of building and regulating domestic relations. The use of a sociocultural approach, according to the author, gives an opportunity to emphasize the integration of relations to domestic violence in a wide cultural context, as well as to assess the dynamics of the attitude of society towards this phenomenon.

    pdf 76-80.pdf  (96 Kb)

  • Kulikov E.M., Nurakhmedova A.A.
    Empirical researches of mass communication audience: opportunities to integrate quantitative and qualitative strategies

    Currently, important social and managerial goals and objectives are set for empirical research of mass communication audience. The level of requirements to the results of sociological projects is increased. The current situation in the mass communication system looks quite complex that actualizes the interest of communicators to representatives of practical sociological science. In the face of information overload and reduced effectiveness of the impact of messages on the mass audience or any of its significant segments, empirical sociology intends to search for and then test new solutions, models, and algorithms of communicators’ actions. The new conditions for the implementation of empirical projects dictate the need for competent integration of quantitative and qualitative paradigms in order to achieve the ultimate social and managerial result. At the same time, the more intensive use of empirical sociological researches for the analysis of the audience of mass communication is hampered by a number of relevant stereotypes and prejudices, concerning the timing, cost, quality, and most importantly, the utilitarianism of empirical projects for the practice of managing social communication. Another significant problem of contemporary cooperation between empirical sociology and the practice of social management in the field of mass communications is the weak realization of the social and engineering potential of primary sociological information. Often, the data obtained do not find the most effective application in management practice, as the sociologist disengages himself (for various reasons) from further participation in decision-making, and representatives of the management system do not have sufficient skills and qualifications. One of the major challenges is the use of quantitative and qualitative research in a comparative empirical project. The article demonstrates the strengths and weaknesses of quantitative and qualitative research in the analysis of the audience of mass communication, as well as identifies promising directions of application of the obtained data for optimization of cooperation between sociologists-researchers and specialists in the field of mass communication. Based on the example of methodically oriented research, the article shows the nature of the primary information obtained from the results of quantitative and qualitative analysis, and the problems and prospects of comparative empirical research of the audience of mass communication.

    pdf 81-88.pdf  (104 Kb)

  • Oidup T.M.
    Study of the legal identity of the Tuva-Mongolian border community: sociological analysis

    The article analyzes the results of the sociological study of the opinion of the residents of the Tuva-Mongolian border community in Tuva and Mongolia territories on the problems of the legal culture of the population, the level of delinquent behavior and the legal identity of the residents. Three groups of respondents, representatives of the Tuva-Mongolian border community, having different knowledge of the role and tasks of the state border are considered as the object of the study. The subject is the influence of these groups on the legal identity of border territories. The aim of the article is to explore the features of the legal identity of the Tuva-Mongolian community. We highlight three groups of respondents who support a particular point of view: state-minded persons, nihilists and a group of well-wishers. Hypothetically, it has been suggested that legal identity is formed depending on the number of supporters of a group. The study revealed the attitude of the three groups towards cross-border offences, based on which we arrived at a conclusion that, in general, the level of cross-border crime was low, but that the population on both sides of the border assessed its level of protection by law enforcement agencies differently. Mongols feel more protected than Tuvian respondents, with nihilistic respondents feeling more unprotected. The issue of preventing and reducing crime in border areas was raised. In the course of the study, we obtained scientifically based data that contribute to understanding the legal identity of the border communities of the Tuva-Mongolian site, developing specific practical measures to solve conflict issues. And we also received confirmation of the conceptual foundations of the theory of sociology of the space by G. Zymmel that the border as a sociological fact, which took a spatial form, is determined by the border community. There is one border between Tuva and Mongolia, but despite this, the inhabitants of the neighboring territories have different views on most issues, which may be diametrically opposite. Each side has its own understanding of the legal norms, border, offences and all other elements of the legal processes of the Tuva-Mongolian border community.

    pdf 89-99.pdf  (158 Kb)

  • Plotnikov V.V., Kasparov A.R.
    On the social factors of extremism

    The article describes the social grounds for the emergence of an extremist threat. The specificity of the author 's approach to solving this problem lies in the analysis of the patterns of functioning of the main social institutions in the conditions of transformational processes taking place in contemporary society. The issues under study are considered from the position of phenomenological sociology. In this regard, extremism is seen as a manifestation of the systemic contradictions of a transforming society. The authors recognize the need to respond to symptomatic events, but point to the need to counter the causes of the extremist threat. Based on a sociostructural and functionalist approach, the authors demonstrate the institutional foundations of extremism as a social phenomenon. In this vein, the social system is presented as a constantly changing, heterogeneous structure, subject to external and internal dynamic processes. The contradictions accumulated during the transformation process become real factors in the emergence of extremist activity. At the same time, one of the main problems is that in modern discourse extremism is presented as an independent process, rather than a phenomenon (manifestation of structural functional contradictions).

    pdf 100-110.pdf  (134 Kb)

  • Runaev T.A.
    Virtual cemetery as a commemorative practice: varieties and development vectors

    The article is devoted to the process of the impact of digital technologies on remembrance practices, which results in a new phenomenon in social reality: the creation of memorials and cemeteries in cyberspace. Today it becomes normal to bring the subject of human death into a virtual world for the purpose of producing collective memories and carrying out remembrance. Therefore, the purpose of this article is to pose the problem of the development of commemorative practices in the modern digital environment. Using the materials of foreign research within the framework of the sociology of culture and based on the data of his own observations, the author determines the discourse of online communations and shows possible varieties of places of remembrance in the Russian-language Internet. Since places of memory in virtual space are a recent phenomenon for scientific research, the author demonstrates the possibilities and methods of studying it within the framework of the sociology of culture. In the course of the study, the author identifies three types of virtual cemeteries, each of which has features of remembrance depending on the individual distance of the online memorial with the real burial of the deceased. The demarcation criterion for the author is the perception of the cemetery as a sign where the “signifier” (gravestone, image) is associated with the “signified” (image). Losing the position of one of the elements leads to a change in commemoration as a social practice. Therefore, the author concludes that the more pronounced the described separation of the “signifiers” (burials) from the “signified” (image of the deceased) is, the weaker the integrative function of the commemorative practice becomes. Although online commentations have a connection to genuine practices of remembrance, the digital environment gives them a public character and alters the perception of the subject of death in real society. The expansion of death in public discourse leads to issues of privacy in cyberspace and to the social responsibility of users for the implementation of compositional practices. Thus, the sociological problem of the study falls within the field of ethics and law enforcement, which leads to a subsequent study of the problem posed by the author.

    pdf 111-119.pdf  (148 Kb)

  • Hlabystova N.V., Netrebko E.N.
    Transformation of the value of education in the system of "university – undergraduate applicants - students - labor market" interaction

    The transition of Russian society to a market model of the economy creates a transformation of the entire social system. The nature of the producer-consumer interaction changes. These changes are also reflected in the institute of education: the commercial sector of educational services is emerging, as well as public institutions are beginning to provide educational services on a paid basis. Due to these changes, education in Russia has become a special commodity, the main consumers of which are undergraduate applicants, students and employers (labor market). Therefore, research aimed at studying the institute of higher education in interaction with its main consumers becomes important. In the article, the authors carry out a secondary analysis of sociological research in order to study the transformation of the value of education in the main consumers of the institute of education. The study of the requirements of applicants, students and employers is today particularly relevant, as competitiveness of the institution of higher education in the market of educational services depends on the extent to which the university meets the requirements of contemporary society. In this article, the authors tried to answer the question of how the value of education in the thinking of consumers of educational services was transformed in connection with the transition of Russian society to a market model of the economy. They rightly stress that the value of education today is transforming from terminal value to instrumental value for all consumers of educational services. Thus, undergraduate applicants are oriented towards higher education to improve social status and material well-being. When choosing a university and a training direction, a resource-saving strategy is used. For undergraduate applicants the determining factors of choice of educational institution are: prestige of the university and high level of quality of education. Students, as consumers of educational services, are oriented towards acquiring practical experience in the process of studying at a university. Therefore, the value of education in the perception of students is determined by the possibility of further successful employment. The transformation of the value of education also takes place in the thinking of employers. The contemporary employer in employment draws attention to the universal competences of the applicant: ability to analyze the situation, work in the collective, make independent decisions, and be always able to innovate, communicable and creative.

    pdf 120-126.pdf  (100 Kb)

  • Chagin V.S., Tuguz F. K.
    Suicide as a special form of deviant behavior of young people: theoretical aspect

    The presented article is devoted to the study of the main sociocultural causes of suicidal behavior among young people. The author attempts to analyze the main factors of suicidal behavior as the most dangerous form of deviation, using existing theoretical approaches of sociological science. The article shows that one of the main factors for the development of various forms of deviant behavior among young people is the specificity of the formation of the personality of the individual during the adolescent period. According to the author, adolescent age is characterized by the transformation of the mental state of the person and the destruction of the formed relations with individuals, as well as the change of living conditions. Age experiences have extreme manifestations and are a provoking factor to aggression. The author uses integrative and interdisciplinary approaches to identify the main social and sociocultural causes of youth suicide, such as: family contradictions, conflicts with members of the opposite sex caused by age and sex factors of influence, interpersonal conflicts in the collective, influence of the sociocultural environment (subcultural diversity, influence of network communities, etc.). However, the author notes that none of the reasons listed can be sufficient to commit suicide without interacting with other factors. He also concludes that all identified youth suicide phenomena have certain characteristics covering different aspects of the phenomenon. In all reasons, the author sees the influence of social and sociocultural factors as a condition that provokes suicide. Based on the aforesaid, the author concludes that the phenomenon of suicidal behavior among young people has a direct relationship with the structure of society, its specific characteristics, including sociocultural ones. He stresses that suicidal manifestations should be examined as a complex phenomenon arising from the appropriate nature of social relations. In the process of research of youth suicide, the specifics of this social group should also be taken into account. At the same time, the study of the present phenomenon among young people is not feasible without taking into account contemporary sociocultural conditions.

    pdf 127-131.pdf  (84 Kb)

  • Shakhbanova M.M.
    Religious identity of mountain Jews: indicators of reproduction

    The changes taking place in contemporary Russian society have affected all social spheres, including the ethnoreligious, within which very complex and contradictory processes are taking place. Therefore, establishing the place of religious identity in the hierarchy of types of social identity is a pressing problem, because interreligious climate and stability, especially in a multireligious and multiethnic environment, depend on its expression and demand for mass consciousness. The study shows that "religion" is one of the key components of the reproduction of the ethnic identity of the mountain Jews, along with other identifiers (national language, national traditions and customs, historical territory, memory and historical past), with it dominating in the hierarchy of ethnic indicators. The study of religious identity and religious behavior of mountain Jews has shown that in the structure of social identity, religious identity is dominant. Moreover, respondents held the position that Judaism played a key role in preserving their ethnic unity and integrity. Further, empirical evidence indicates that the vast majority of the surveyed mountain Jews have a sense of community with representatives of their people and common believers, while ethnoreligious identity is central in the formation of their behavioral and worldview attitudes. Empirical evidence states that the mountain Jews denote unity with both members of their ethnic community and with common believers, which is the basis for concluding the importance for them of both national and religious factors, moreover, this fact is the basis for the formation of ethnoreligious identity. At the same time, a sociological study revealed the existence in the socio-demographic perspective of differences in the definition of the place and role of Judaism in the attitudes of the mountain Jews surveyed. In addition, the results of the study suggest that religious regulations, in particular prayer, fasting, reading of religious texts, visiting a synagogue, etc., are a manifestation of ethnoreligious unity, which contribute to the consolidation of an ethnic group and, in this process, religious consciousness implements one of the most important functions.

    pdf 132-140.pdf  (135 Kb)

  • Schemeleva Yu.B.
    Smart city: yesterday, today, tomorrow

    Smart city or "clever city" is a new concept. It just comes into our lives, and not everyone understands its full meaning. The aim of creating a "smart city" is to improve the quality of life based on information technology in order to improve the living standards of urban residents. With their help, city authorities can directly interact with urban infrastructure and urban communities, as well as monitor the development of the city to develop ways to improve the quality of life. We are witnessing the beginning of a new era – the era of smart cities. This paper traces the history of the concept of "smart city" since its appearance in the 1990s as a fantastic future. Next, we consider the gradual realization of the vital need to implement a digital framework in the management of the economy and infrastructure of the city. In 2008, with the onset of the financial crisis, it became clear that it is necessary to change radically the economic system at all levels, starting with the municipal, including changing the methods of planning. The successive steps, and projects aimed at the transition to a data-driven city (or DDC) are described. The necessity of introduction of advanced digital technologies in the field of urban management, ensuring the competitiveness of Russian companies in the field of information and communication technologies and the creation of promising products and services in the markets of digitalization of urban and territorial management is substantiated. The article describes the list of mandatory requirements for Smart City, such as an intelligent city management center, a digital platform for solving urban planning issues, a system of automated control of the work of road services and municipal equipment, "smart" housing, energy-efficient urban lighting, face recognition system and others. We summarize that at the expert level it is customary to distinguish three conditional phases of development (generation) of smart cities: - SMART CITY 1.0-technology-oriented city; SMART CITY 2.0-high-tech managed city; SMART CITY 3.0 is a highly intelligent integrated city. It is emphasized that the era of smart cities is just beginning.

    pdf 141-148.pdf  (105 Kb)