#2 / 2011
The social and cultural arguments of the knowledge and modern transcendentalism
The paper is dedicated to the investigation of the arguments of the knowledge in the modern philosophy. The author studies the transformation of the classical approaches to this problem, related social and cultural arguments of the knowledge and the modern forms of the transcendentalism.
Principles and methods of studying ecological consciousness
On the basis of the analysis of the domestic and foreign literature devoted to ecological consciousness, the author arrives at a conclusion that along with certain achievements in studying this problem a lot of disputable and unresolved questions remain. The author considers that in the theory of ecological consciousness methods and principles of its research on social-philosophical aspect are studied insufficiently. The purpose of this paper is to reveal principles and methods of studying ecological consciousness.
The theoretical bases of a phenomenon of ideology: the social-philosophical analysis
The paper discusses the theoretical approaches to the social-philosophical analysis of a phenomenon of ideology. In social-humanitarian knowledge the concept “ideology” is used in several meanings as a specific belief, as the belief basing on false knowledge of the social and as a set of ideas in the various spheres - from scientific knowledge to religion and daily views on appropriate behavior, not depending on that whether these beliefs are true or are false. This paper examines these three approaches that demand a historical retrospective show of the genesis of the concept of “ideology”.
A.V. Sopov, A.Sh. Buzarov
Place and role of Cossacks in the Russian cultural-ethnic processes
The urgency of this study is caused by features of formation of the Russian state and Russian nation. Undoubtedly, serious role in the designated process was played by the Cossacks. The work is aimed at elucidation of degree of Cossacks’ participation in formation of the Russian state and their role in formation of Russian nation. One of the problems is a parity of Cossacks and Russian. The authors reveal whether or not Cossacks are a subethnos of Russian people, and if they are, in what historical epoch and why this has occurred. The authors study the Cossacks as a historical phenomenon. A subject of research includes ethno-cultural and historical interrelations of the Cossacks and Russian state. It is inferred that Cossacks are trailblazers, openers and subjugators of provinces. They played “an advanced post” role, bearing a frontier service, defending and keeping integrity of Russia as the state, territory and civilization.
New Economic Policy in a domestic historiography
The paper examines stages of studying new economic policy by a historical science. Researchers’ views on this problem are often defined by a political state of affairs. Recent works give an objective estimation of the purposes of new economic policy.
The new archival materials allow researchers to track the process of origin and development of new economic and public relations at the initial stage of building a socialist society in Russia.
The periods of studying the New Economic Policy in the historical literature coincide in many respects with basic changes in the history of the country. But interest to this problem doesn't weaken. New Economic Policy experience is claimed in the period of economic reforms and during transitional economy development.
Self-identification of the Russian officers participating in the Caucasian War (19th century)
In the paper, we analyze basic elements of self-identification of the Russian officers participating in the Caucasian War of the 19th century, namely: their isolation from other Russian military men, an informal ceremony of initiation of the newly arrived, internal differentiation, features of mutual relations of officers and soldiers, as well as stability of these elements.
Primary, secondary and secondary special education in Turkey
The paper describes a system of primary, secondary and secondary special education in the Ottoman Empire and the Turkish Republic, its gradual formation and development. The following problems are solved in the work: introduction of general obligatory primary education in Turkish Republic; modernization of system of education; additional secondary and secondary special education.
Adyghe late- mid-century Kemirgoy (Kremuk) princedom
The paper discusses questions related to medieval history of the Circassians, in particular the well-known Kemirgoy princedom. The author uses materials of medieval annals, of Russian and East authors and the archeological data. Of great value are also folklore data to reconstruct the described events. The comparative analysis of different kinds of sources allows the author to receive the objective information about the Adyghe princedom. In the period under consideration Kemirgoy represented not only a militarily strong princedom. The data of the Italian sources and archeology allow the author to draw a conclusion on high level of economic development of a feudal society in the region.
Ethnodemographic situation in Adygheya Republic
The paper discusses the condition of an ethnodemographic situation in the Adygheya Republic at the present stage of development. The author investigates features of ethnic and demographic processes in Adygheya Republic, analyzes the factors which have led to a crisis state of a demographic situation and to transformation of ethnic structure of the population of the Adygheya Republic.
Dialectics of quantitative and qualitative approaches in ethnosocial researches
The paper discusses quantitative and qualitative methods of contemporary sociology and their correlation in the western and domestic sociology. The author reveals features of a quantitative method of research and the logic of interaction of quantitative and qualitative approaches in the sociological analysis, as well as the opportunities of using these methods in research of functioning of family-patrimonial social memory.
Youth in Russian contemporary society: problems of destructive behavior
In the paper, problems of purposeful interaction of Russian contemporary society and youth’s social-demographic group of the population are analyzed. The author examines the real problems of youth including destructive behavior in indispensable interrelation with forms and methods of their purposeful regulation and investigates modern personal-behavioural tendencies in a modern design of youth’s subculture.
Preventive measures against destructive behaviour of minors: experience of foreign strategies
The paper discloses the essence of formation of modern strategies for preventive measures against destructive behavior of children and teenagers in some foreign countries. The author analyzes efficiency of the used methods and mechanisms for the institualization of this system, its substantiveness and universality.
Social-professional and value orientations of teachers at comprehensive schools in the conditions of modernization of social institute of education (regional aspect)
The paper provides an analysis of sociological research conducted in 2008-2009 in the Khakassia Republic. The research has been directed to studying social-professional and value orientations of teachers at comprehensive schools. It has been established that in the conditions of reforming the institute of the general education three social types of the person are formed among teachers: romanticists, creators and conformists.
Gender violence as an interdisciplinary problem
The paper provides an analysis of gender violence as an interdisciplinary problem. The author defines universalism of gender violence in public life and its characteristics in various fields of knowledge. The basic features of gender violence in philosophy, psychology, history, law and related sciences are considered.
Regional peculiarities of the social feeling of the population in the multiethnic regions of the South of Russia
The paper describes the territorial peculiarities of the social feeling of the population in the Southern Federal District. Basing on the results of applied sociological research held in 2009-2010 a comparative analysis is made to determine at what degree the citizens of Rostov and Krasnodar regions and Adygheya Republic are satisfied with their social and economic situation, with government actions, as well as with the interethnic relations within the South of Russia.
National and international problems as a result of internal ethnic stratification
The paper discusses the basic international problems of the Russian contemporary society arising in the course of ethnic stratification. In addition, the reasons generating these problems are established. The special attention is given to the factors influencing their solution and formation of tolerant behaviour and consciousness.
Research activity of post-graduate students and competitors for Candidate degree: disciplinary differentiation
In the paper, basing on the results of sociological research, specificity of research activity of post-graduate students and competitors for Candidate degree, taking into account the “disciplinary differentiation” criterion, is revealed. Comparison of the data obtained as a result of their poll at natural-science faculties with the data obtained at social-humanitarian faculties allows the author to establish common characteristics and peculiar features. Of interest is the reference to the Russian sociological researches.
Gender characteristics of social positions of women in the Adyghe traditional society
An analysis is made of the gender order which is based on traditions, norms and rules of subjects of social interaction. The author denies the opinion that the Caucasian woman occupied the slavish and dependent position. Analyzing data on position of the women, containing in the Adyghe etiquette, Adapt norms, Nart epos, Koran, European and domestic sources, the conclusion is made that the woman in the Adyghe traditional society did not occupy the oppressed position. Her gender status was high; she did not perceive available interdictions as discrimination. Moreover, there are examples when an opportunity was given to her to be beyond the traditional social roles.
Detailed elaboration of principles of appointment of punishment in system of softening and aggravating circumstances
The paper discusses the detailed elaboration of principles of appointment of punishment in system of the circumstances softening and aggravating punishment. The legal importance of the given circumstances is that they are a legal ground of softening or toughening punishment. The institute of softening and aggravating circumstances reflects the principles of legality, equality, guilt and punishment individualization.
Legal basis of protection of workers’ rights in criminal law
The paper provides an analysis of the legal, philosophical, psychological and sociological literature. The author designates the basic theoretical and methodological problems of doctrines about work, persons of labor activity, responsibility and necessity of criminal - legal protection of workers’ rights.
Problems of a legal estimation of weapon application at realization of office and professional work
A system analysis is made of the circumstances excluding criminality of act, concerning an estimation of legitimacy of weapon application by law enforcement officers. The special attention is given to a parity of norms of the criminal and special legislation, to the bases and tresspass conditions. The author gives reasons of perfection of a legal basis of the compelled use of weapons.
The right of self-defense for the person and its logical-structural analysis
The work discusses the qualitatively new approach to definition of the criminal-legal nature of self-defense for the person. On the basis of the critical analysis of the legislation and doctrinal sources, discrepancy is established between the institute of the circumstances excluding criminality of act, and its preventive function and contemporary level of criminal threats. The special attention is given to the author's model of self-defense for the person basing on an establishment of the grounds for the occurrence of the right of self-defense and signs of structure of defensive actions.
On clearing settlements: a financial-legal aspect
The paper discusses the various points of view on the financial-legal aspect of clearing settlements. It is inferred that the information component of the legal nature of money is a much more important circumstance for perfection of financial-legal regulation of settlement legal relationship. It is worthy of notice that settlement legal relationships are understood as the public relations regulated by norms of the monetary circulation law. These public relations concern realization of calculations between the organizations and physical persons in the course of economic and related non economic activity, as well as between them and the state in the course of execution of financial duties.
Delay in punishment by criminal - executive legislation: the gender analysis
The paper discusses problems related to a delay in serving a punishment to the condemned pregnant women and to the condemned women having juvenile children. Position of women condemned to imprisonment is in focus of attention for many scientists. The main points concerning expediency and essence of a delay are presented in two aspects: too long period of this delay (before the child is 14 years old) and, as to the gender approach, its inapplicability to the condemned men who are fathers of juvenile children for various reasons, for example, bringing up the child independently.
Theoretical and methodological preconditions of the analysis of “night” concept in Adyghes’ ethnoculture
The paper addresses the methodology of research of Adyghes’ ethnoculture in works of contemporary writers. The author shows necessity of the system approach to the analysis of the general and local phenomena of ethnic culture of Adyghes using an example of a phenomenon of night. The structured model of an ethnic picture of the world is offered allowing a complex application of methods of empirical research.
The “open-air” burial ceremony in space of pagan culture of the Abhazes and Adyghes
The paper provides an analysis of one of the brightest ceremonies of Abhaze-Adyghe paganisms – a cult of the “open-air” burial. On the basis of historical documents, archival sources and the translation literature, the “open-air” burial is presented as the phenomenon characteristic of culture of the Abkhazes and Adyghes within the limits of a foreseeable historical epoch up to the mid-19th century. The chosen culturological approach has allowed the researcher to reveal typology of an “open-air” burial ceremony and to define its stable and mobile, general and local elements.
Cosmic features in symbolics of Adyghe traditional costume
The paper provides an analysis of mythological-symbolical semantics in traditional culture of the Adyghes. Research on cosmic evolutional mission of the person bears an idea of expansion of consciousness both in artistic images and in philosophical thoughts. The author examines the mythological understanding of color as a cosmic aesthetic category within the limits of traditional culture. Dual concepts contrasting in mythical consciousness of the Adyghes, good and harm comparison are reflected in color symbolics accordingly by comparison of the light and dark. This gets value in other plane in due course as color contrast at creation of art details. The special attention in the paper is given to semantics of traditional clothes decor, in particular the costume ornament and relation of symbolics of a costume to cosmic-natural objects and phenomena. Mythological outlook and beliefs of the Adyghes, by means of color and an ornament, have created in due time the cultural picture of the world embodied in an ethnic image through a costume.
The 1962 Caribbean crisis: new approaches and estimations (based on materials of the U.S. National Safety Archive)
Lessons of the 1962 Caribbean crisis for the American foreign policy are analyzed on the basis of the declassified documents of the U.S. National Safety Archive. The author examines their influence on formation of strategic concepts of the USA in the second half of the 20th – beginning of the 21st centuries.
Attributive and functional properties of the information power
The paper provides a social-information analysis of a role of the information power in terms of the attributive and functional approaches to reality cognizing. This allows a complete consideration of the essence, nature, character and displays of the information power.