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#1 / 2007
Georgiy Arsenievich Emanuel, the commander of the Caucasian line and Black Sea region (1826-1831)
The paper discusses the activity of the commander of the Caucasian line G.A. Emanuel as a militarian, a diplomat and a strategist who managed to swear in many mountain peoples both with the help of the weapon and by making peace with them.
Care of colonel A.V. Pistolkors about an improvement of living conditions of immigrants
The activity of the commander of the26th horse regiment A.V.Pistolkors on settling and an accomplishment of villages of the Kuban Cossack army is examined.
A problem of a peasant community in the internal policy of the imperial government in the second half of the 19th century
The paper is devoted to a problem of a peasant land community, to the attitude to it of the government at different stages of a Russian history of the second half of the 19th century.
A geopolitical situation and internal social and economic conditions in Cherkesiya in the first third of the 19th century
In the paper, the author considers specific features of a geopolitical situation in Cherkesiya in the first third of the 19th century and reveals the influence of foreign policy on social and economic conditions in the region.
Ethnography, Ethnology and Historical Anthropology
An economy, culture and life of Cossacks as ethnic determinants
An analysis is made of specific features of the economic-cultural type of Cossacks, material, spiritual and household culture of Cossacks. The culture is considered as the complicated element of the ethnic system having qualities of an ethnic determinant. The paper contains the analysis of the typical features of the Cossack settlements, forms of dwellings as well as appearance and clothes of Cossacks and their food preferences. As for the questions of spiritual culture of Cossacks the author analyzes, first of all, their religiousness as well as folklore as one of the major factors describing features of this or that ethnic (ethnographic) group. The special place is given to the Cossack weapon and military manuals. Basing on well-known sources, the type of an economy of various groups of Cossacks is analyzed.
K.K. Khutyz and E.A. Shebzukhova
Adyg hunting from ethnographic and folklore materials
The Adyg hunting and its ways are analyzed basing on ethnographic and folklore materials. The Nart epos, which is of great historical value, gives trade animals and their places of habitat. The authors describe stages and methods of hunting of heroes of the epos as well as protection of wild animals by the God of a wood and hunting Mezytkhe. According to folklore data examples are given showing how people cared of preservation of natural balance of game in a nature from the old times.
Rationality as a way of the attitude of the person to the world. Structure and typology of rationality
The paper discusses the essence of the rational source in human consciousness, its importance and correlation with other forms of the attitude of the person to the world. The author discloses the structure of rationality and reveals criteria for its typologization. The urgency of the topic is caused, first of all, by features of development of scientific and technical civilization.
Secularization in a Turkish way (Mustafa Kemal Atatyurk’s reforms)
One of the major questions of internal policy of the countries in the Muslim East is realization of interaction of the state and religion. In Turkey these relations developed in a channel of laicism, that is a universal division of functions of a secular society and an Islam. Reforms of the first President of the Turkish Republic have transformed it from the theocratic state into secular and it has become the first country of the East where the Islam was officially separated from the state. Revolutionary changes in the 1920s-1930-s have allowed Turkey to turn into economically and politically safe country. But as a whole, laicismic transformations had superficial character and have not affected mental structures of multi-million masses of simple Turks, first of all, in a countryside. This circumstance explains the sudden appearance of parties of Islamic sense in a political arena in Turkey in the 1990s and in the beginning of the 21st century and their impressing success in parliamentary elections. In view of new realities the destiny of Turkish laicism, most likely, will be solved during the future intercivilizational opposition the symptoms of which are displayed in intensification of Islamic fundamentalism in internal and foreign policy of the Muslim countries.
The territorial organization of an infrastructure of religious geosystems in the Adygheya Republic
In the paper, results of research of a religious infrastructure and its territorial organization in the Adygheya Republic are presented. The maps made on the basis of the obtained results are published for the first time.
The Adyghe parliamentarianism at the beginning of the 20th century (the sociological-political analysis)
The author investigates the setting up of parliamentarianism of mountain peoples and a role in it of the Kuban Duma.