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#1 / 2016
On influence of the railroads on the Central Kuban social and economic development in the second half of the 19th – early 20th centuries
The paper examines the problems related to the construction of the railroads in Central Kuban in the context of local economic realities and need to develop social and economic infrastructure of the region in the second half of the 19th – early 20th century, their influence on demographic processes, capitalist development of the region, civil engineering and emergence of new shopping centers, credit institutions and agriculture.
G.I. Aubekova, K.M. Gozhev
Written language of the Abazins in contradictory linguistic policy of Russia (1917 - the end of the 20th century)
The paper deals with the ethnocultural problems of formation of written language of the Abazin people in the context of contradictory language policy of young Russia and an arbitrary rule of local officials. Research on this problem is caused by need to preserve a multicultural and language diversity and the small people for the modern Russian state. The proposal is made to create the Concept of the state language policy meeting new realities. The text is stated in historical, political, social and philosophical interpretation
History of the labor legislation in Russia in the 1917-1920s
The paper is dedicated to the analysis of legal aspects of regulation of the population employment in Russia in the 1917-1920s. The social and economic reasons of unemployment are considered in detail. Current situation did not remain unnoticed by the government, and the process of creation of standard legal base has begun in the country. Subsequently this affected well unemployment rate in the country and further, by the end of the 1920s, allowed its complete liquidation. The state and legal acts on regulation of the sphere of population employment were studied in the work in detail. Law-enforcement practice of the Soviet State in the first years of its existence has been considered. The author analyzes the Law "About Labor Exchanges" adopted in 1917, the decree of Council of People's Commissars of the USSR "About labor exchanges", various resolutions of Council of People's Commissars of the RSFSR, the 1918 Code of laws on the labor of RSFSR, the Declaration of the rights of the worker and the exploited people, as well as the Constitution of 1918 and other normative legal acts.
Formation and development of system of scientific provision of the Karachay-Cherkessia agrarian sector (the 1930-1980s)
The paper explores the origin and development of the regional system of scientific provision of agriculture in the Top Kuban region where, in the studied time, the Karachay and Circassian autonomous regions were located, and since 1957 – the Karachay-Cherkessia autonomous region. This publication shows the reasons and conditions of structure emergence of scientific and technical service of subjects of economic activity of agrarian sector, as well as offers the substantiated periodization of history of scientific provision of agriculture. The paper describes various forms of the scientific structures operating in animal husbandry and field husbandry of Karachay-Cherkessia: laboratories, experimental stations, pilot, educational -experimental and experimental-production farms, research institute of agriculture, etc.
Traditions and innovations in activity of judicial authorities in the territory of Karachay and Balkaria during the post-reform period (The 1860s – the beginning of the 20th century)
The paper deals with the activity of judicial authorities in social, political and economic life of mountain societies of Karachay and Balkaria during the post-reform period. The problem of application by courts of different types of the right (an adat, Sharia, imperial laws) is investigated. The assessment is given to process of gradual replacement of traditional rules of law with new, more progressive laws during the studied period.
Some aspects of geopolitical measurement of the Syrian crisis (the years 2011-2016)
The paper explores the geopolitical interests defining policy of some parties involved in the Syrian crisis.
"Association of Germans from Russia" and its activity in modern Germany
The paper examines the questions related to the organization and activity of "The Association of Germans from Russia" with the center in the city of Stuttgart; including the main activities of federal board of "Association" and evolution of activity of this organization at a turn of the 20-21st centuries.
The Circassian slaves in the Western Mediterranean (the last third of the 13th-15th centuries)
The late Middle Ages in the history of Circassia were marked by strengthening such negative social and historical phenomenon as a slave trade. Both owing to internal, sociocultural factors and under primary impact of the Genoa colonization and military pressure from the Golden Horde, the Circassian society became one of the chief suppliers of slaves on foreign markets. Throughout the last third of the 13th – the first half of the 14th century Circassians made a third of all mass of the Black Sea slaves, then their proportion increased and in the 15th century natives of Circassia made about a half of all slaves of this region.
Ethnocultural traditions and the Great Patriotic War of 1941-1945 as shown by the Circassian autonomous region
The paper is dedicated to changes in the social status of the woman in traditional cultures of the people of the Circassian autonomous region in the period of the Great Patriotic War. The documents from archives of the Karachay-Cherkessia Republic disclosing a role of women of indigenous nationality in mobilization of economy of the region have served as an illustration.
O.V. Borovik, S.S. Shurenkova, A.V. Airapetov
Criteria for social dynamics efficiency in a discourse of modern sociological knowledge
Research on a ratio between the network and centralized structures can be made doubly – at the historical, procedural level and through identification of sociological aspect of a problem. The present paper is dedicated to dynamic aspect of a problem of the social organization of modern society. In this connection the publication deals with the leading tendencies in social development the result of which is forecasting efficiency of social dynamics.
A.N. Bulkin, O.V. Sovershenny, A.A. Fedorova
Social forecasting in the research field of the Russian sociology
The scientific argument of forecasting in dynamics of social development substantially reflects one of the bases of human existence in the context of basic historicity of society. The essence of social forecasting is determined by efficiency expectations, both by the intermediate stages of a scientific observation, and by the end results in achievement of a goal. The statistics of social forecasting allows the choice of the most suitable algorithm. It in turn assumes answers to questions of accuracy of the preferred methods, cost intensity when using, quantity and frequency of measurements.
Z.A. Zhade, Z.Yu. Khuako
Information security in the context of interethnic intensity
The paper discusses topical aspects of ensuring information security of the Russian Federation in the context of interethnic intensity, strengthening a role of mass media in consolidation of the Russian civil consciousness and spiritual community of the multinational people of our country.
Social inequality through a prism of classical sociology
The paper states that the social inequality acts as the attributive characteristic of society throughout almost the whole history of its existence. There are indisputable facts supporting that there was an inequality in the social systems a millennium ago. Large-scale experiments of creation of socialist and communistic societies, including in our country, do not give the grounds to speak about full (or a little significant) overcoming a social inequality. Human society looks like the multilevel, elaborate system which is almost excluding equality of individuals, groups, layers, classes – as irreversible consequence of different reaction to various incentives of society – political, economic, social and spiritual.
Celibate Priest Ignatius (N.D. Kiut), V.M. Savelenko, V.A. Nazarov,
Sociology of continuity of Christian consciousness
The person can direct to the social purposes, significant for his religious consciousness. So there is a space where religiousness is transformed to various forms of a sociality. This space makes one of those problem areas which has to be investigated and can be studied by the culture sociology. The Orthodox Christianity is a historical heritage which is honored by the people of Russia. The purpose of modeling the Christian consciousness continuity is creation of optimum pedagogical, spiritual and moral conditions for the maximum satisfaction of requirements of self-development and self-realization of the personality and in which teaching and educational activity of all subjects of sociocultural process becomes a system-forming factor.
A.R. Kasparov, R.V. Skoblikov
Role of legal socialization in professional formation of police officers
The paper deals with the mechanisms of interference of the conflictogenic capacity of system of law-enforcement bodies and efficiency of models of legal socialization of police officers receiving vocational education. The authors analyze both the theoretical sources of its research, and practical forms of formation of legal culture, including an assessment of a role and value of early legal socialization of youth and teenagers.
Concept "the Russian world": principles and possibilities of methodological approaches
The paper sheds light on the existing approaches and interpretations of a concept "the Russian world". The author allocates the civilization and lingual-semiotic approaches, the religious integrative approach of Russian Orthodox Church, the liberal critical approach which is ideologically related to modern Russian "neo-Westernism" and the sociocultural approach which is going back to P.A. Sorokin's sociology. "The Russian world" as a concept is a complicated and voluminous cognitive, most likely imaginative construct with the value and semantic loading originating in the area of ethnic unconscious mentality, in nostalgia on the idealized historical past. The concept of "the Russian world" is now in a condition of crystallization and a logical shaping as a modern identification and civilization constant.
The statuses of sociocultural socialization of youth in small business
The cultural history of global and regional societies confirms the thesis, which has become classical, that work improves the person. At the same time the phenomenality of work and the communications accompanying it are not always positively uncovered in practical reality.
The national - state identity and models of social behavior in Russian modern society
The paper discusses different types of the national - state identity which cause reproduction of standard and modal models of social behavior. In modern Russian society these models act as reaction of the social actor or social group to a social situation and to external social changes in the form of set of the social actions directed to support social existence or adaptation to the social environment. Now the tendency related to overcoming an informative unilaterality, on the one hand, personal and situational and, on the other hand, – dispositional and culturological approaches of scientific research was outlined in studying social behavior. In line with this tendency the social behavior of the person is not considered as a result of pressure of a social situation or individual traits of his character, his social values, attitudes or cultural predisposition any more.
Internet as socio-communicative space of the present
The increasing importance in modern conditions is gained by generalization and systematization of theoretical bases of the personality’s information security in "the real world". The author allocates among definitions, topical for sociology of culture, the general concept of information security, as well as concepts of communication resources, the market of information and information individualization.
Responses of local mountain communities to processes of modern social and economic changes in Kabardino-Balkar Republic (as shown by the Elbrus region)
The paper discusses the social and economic changes influencing a way of life and mentality of local mountain communities. The author allocates three reactions, most typical of Elbrus municipal district: outflow of the population, modernization of mountain communities and crisis of fight against changes of local communities. Possible solutions of these reactions are offered.
T.V. Popova, V.N. Grishay, A.A. Matsnev
Methodology of applied researches on television audience in sociology
The administration of TV channels shows interest in carrying out applied sociological researches because information obtained according to their results can help optimize editorial policy, reorient team of journalists to shed light on the problems causing interest and concern of audience. Broad territorial, geographical coverage of audience, heterogeneity and dissociation of TV viewers dictate need to conduct applied sociological researches on audience. This allows understanding of a degree of success of TV channel activity.
A.T. Rostova, O.Yu. Makarov, Yu.A. Bulkin
Culture sociology in cognition of the society’s laws
In the context of the social organization, the sociology of culture shapes its subject according to institutional complexes of social life. At the same time, factors, conditions and prospects of development of the personality and group gain their own value. In the context of the corresponding analytics, the structure of society reflects the laws of socio-historical development in a large-scale subject of scientific research. In totality of the principles and laws of scientific knowledge the sociology of culture manifests itself in constructions of the theoretical bases of knowledge of society based on empirical data, fragments of cultural science, an esthetics, history, social psychology and ethnology. Simultaneously, the sociology of culture is turned to the analysis of internal structure of society, features of its social contents. Also factors of dynamics of the relations between social groups and the general laws in various spheres of public life are taken into account.
Working class: sociocultural analysis and structural changes in society
The paper is devoted to a complex problem of search for alternative ways of studying features of the sociocultural status of representatives of modern working class. Changes in social structure of society promote transformation of the status of workers in the contemporary Russian history. Processes of social transition demand application of sociocultural approach to the analysis of the complex theoretical problems arising when studying working class.
Subjectivation of the power in personality/s space
In the presented paper, incorporation of the power in space of the personality and its intra personal measurement are analyzed. The author is based on understanding of the power as the personality "generated" by habitus, by the schemes of representation and perception of the power produced in the context of the social dispositions of the personality forming sense and borders of its space.
Natural and social preconditions for existence of animals and human forms of collective cohabitation
Language as one of aspects of social cultural reality reflects ideas of a specific cultural community of structure and functioning of environment. In this context paradoxical is the identification of the word "city" at designation of territorial collective forms of existence of public insects and the spaces urbanized by the person. This paper compares structural and functional bases of both types of the collective organization of life, on the basis of which both the general preconditions of formation and intrinsic distinctions are distinguished. The general precondition of formation of collective forms of cohabitation is need of association in order to construct defensive or economic constructions that promote the best adaptation and survival of a species. Thus, collective forms of cohabitation are formed when the individual is not able to solve the arisen problem independently, i.e. there is a request for joint activity response (solidarization) in relation to external incentive. A key distinctive feature of the human cities from animal quasisocial analogs is existence of the social relations between individuals who not only actualize creation of new forms of collective accommodation, but also form a request for satisfaction of certain social requirements. At the same time social-cultural processes are primary and dominant in relation to physical shapes, being the base for formation of the human city.
Beethoven in film text space: "lecture 21" of A. Baricco
The paper focuses on the feature film of Alessandro Baricco "Lecture 21". Addressing the Symphony No. 9 of L. van Beethoven, the director tries to give the answer to a question of what the choral symphony of the composer is today: unsurpassed example of classical heritage of the master or "an exaggerated masterpiece"? Analyzing the film music, in particular the Symphony No. 9 of L. van Beethoven used by A. Baricco, the author on a tangent addresses movies of S. Kubrick ("Clockwork Orange"), A. Tarkovsky ("Nostalgia) and other directors, proposing the version of the response to the question raised by the director.
The focus is interethnic intensity (Review of the monograph of group of authors "Ethnosocial Processes: Regional Measurement” / Chief Editor R.D. Khunagov; Eds. A.Yu. Shadzhe, S. A. Lyausheva. – Maikop: Kachestvo, 2015. – 162 pp.)
In the review, the author makes an analysis and judgment of the conclusions stated on pages of the collective monograph "Ethnosocial Processes: Regional Measurement". Importance of interdisciplinary studying, the analysis and an assessment of interethnic intensity as most important indicator of a condition of ethnocultural processes is emphasized. The review rises the questions connected with further empirical studying and assessment of this important phenomenon.
Abstracts of Monographs
N.A. Ilyinova, V.V. Shalatov
Reflections on the book "The Hired Worker in Modern Russia"
Reviewers are making an attempt to assess timeliness of sociological research of the position of the hired worker in Russian modern society conducted by group of scientists of Institute of Sociology of the Russian Academy of Sciences, the theoretical and practical importance of its results.