#4 / 2013
Morals: evolution of concept and bases of verbal behavior
The universal content of morals acts as the standard requirement. Neither ethical, nor moral postulates can be defined by any situation or human consciousness: the moral is absolute. Elements of moral culture of the personality are culture of ethical thinking, culture of feelings, standard of speech, culture of behavior and etiquette. Communicative practice of modern society discloses an infinite number of phenomena and the issues relating to the sphere of an intersubjectivity. The society is differentiated and the moral is also differentiated. It extends to social groups rather than to the whole society. The moral differentiation in that case can be split up to minimum indivisible part of society – the person, i.e. morals in modern understanding as uniform standards “for all” will be absent.
National idea of Russia as the factor which increases the country viability
An analysis is made of the country “viability” in a context of “the national idea”. The conclusion is substantiated that “the national idea” of Russia is capable to increase “viability” of the country and to keep its identity, owing to creating social energy of the people and political elite. The major mobilizing resource of “the national idea” is the statement of moral-spiritual values in the Russian society through education, culture, religion and science.
Sociocultural bases of the Russian identity
The paper discusses the formation and strengthening the Russian national identity. The author reveals the sociocultural sense of the Russian identity and discloses the essence of interrelation of national, regional and ethnocultural identities in the North Caucasus. Based on the provision on a mutually complementarity of different types of identities, the conclusion is drawn that strengthening the Russian identity in the south of Russia is aimed at social integration and social and cultural consolidation.
Noospheric society: a new historical type of socio-ecological systems
The author dwells upon typical features of noosphere human communities
regarded as a new type of socio-ecological systems. Prospects and hazards of genetic engineering are being assessed, namely those related to recombinant DNA technology.
Semiotics of space in modern chronotope
In this article the author examines the alignment of semiotic space through the prism of a temporary phenomenon and the location, given in the different ways of the experience of aesthetic experience, defines the phenomenon of cyclic and linear time at the moment, which is the essence of setting time and space at a particular moment. The author concludes that, in accordance with the experience, each person as a subject can slow down or speed up time, but at the same time fix the objective course of time which is external to the world of experience. If there is a feeling that time has stopped, it is only for a moment. Therefore, it is the moment that appears to become the main aesthetic definition of linear time and is provided with different aesthetic “markers.” A moment can be seen as the highest sense of happiness and excitement, as a feeling of peace, like the scales that weigh human acts as the highest sense of horror.
I.I. Gorlova, A.I. Slutskiy
On formation of book business infrastructure in Adyghea (1870 – 1917 ): source study aspect
An analysis is made of possibilities to use the archival fund of the chief of the Kuban area and acting ataman of the Kuban Cossack Army (F. 454) at the State Archive of Krasnodar Territory to study the history of book business in Adyghea.
The reasons and consequences of social shocks in the Arab countries of the Middle East and North Africa (the end of the first – the beginning of the second decade of the 21st century)
The purpose of this work is to disclose objective and subjective preconditions of social disturbances in the Arab states of the North African and Middle Eastern regions at the beginning of the 21st century and their social and economic and political consequences. The paper discusses social processes in the countries of North Africa and the Middle East, as well as shows the reasons and consequences of social disturbances in the states of the Middle East and North Africa at the beginning of the 21st century.
Women in socio-political life of Daghestan (the 14-19th centuries)
Position of the woman in society, her social, economic and legal status is one of the actual problems of historical and ethnographic science. The increased role of the woman in the modern world makes a study problem of a role and a place of the woman in the society especially topical. Now historical science puts problems which need the concrete decision. Urgent are also the questions concerning a role of women in socio-political life of traditional society. The present work discusses the questions related to a role of the woman in socio-political life of the people of the North Caucasus, in particular Daghestan.
On influence of the pro-Israeli lobby on foreign policy of the USA (the 1990s – the beginning of the 21st century)
This paper examines the place and a role of the pro-Israeli lobby in foreign policy of the United States of America in the 1990s – the beginning of the 21st century, the purposes, tasks and methods of influence of a pro-Israeli lobby in the USA. Two existing points of view are considered, whether or not a pro-Israeli lobby influences a foreign policy of the United States. Relevance of this work is caused by the special relations between the USA and Israel. Any other state does not enjoy such support of the United States as Israel. The author considers the reasons of one of the possible variants of such close cooperation.
Adyghe historiography: formation of research tradition
The formation and development of historiographic tradition belong to theoretically significant problems, which keep so far debatable character. Proceeding from this, of special importance is a question related to sources of written history at the non-literate people, including the Adyghes.
Soviet historiography on the role of non-resident population in social and economic, political and cultural development of the Kuban region in the second half of the 19th century
The article analyzes the role of the Soviet historiography of nonresident population of the Kuban region in social and economic, political and cultural development of the region. It is concluded that all researchers have noted a huge contribution to the evolution of the above-mentioned non-resident processes proceeding in the Kuban region in the second half of the 19th century.
Cultural and educational policy of the Russian government in the Northwest Caucasus in the nineteenth century
The article deals with a complex and many-sided problem of investigating the mechanisms of attaching Adyges to the system of values which the Russian government was trying to “impose” among the mountain dwellers of the Northwest Caucasus in the XIX century. The author concludes that the government’s instruction and education policy of the mountaineers not only promoted Europeanization and preserve their unique culture, but was aimed at the strategic objectives of the Russian Empire for the conquest of the North Caucasus.
Organization of training and employment of disabled people of the Great Patriotic War in the Kuban region in 1941-1945
The actuality of the article lies in the possibility of using the historical experience of the past in solving problems of social adaptation of disabled persons, participators of the war actions in modern Russia. The purpose of research is to analyze the process of training and employment of disabled of the great Patriotic War in the Kuban region in 1941-1945. The tasks lie in covering basic directions, forms and methods of cooperation between employees of social affairs and health care, with the support of the party, state apparatus and civil society organizations to address the professional rehabilitation of war disabled. Object of research is the development of the state system of welfare and rehabilitation of disabled persons in 1941-1945. Subject of study is in the process of vocational rehabilitation of war veterans in the Kuban region. The study shows the importance of the activities of government, party and public authorities of the Krasnodar Region in removal employment problems of disabled in the great Patriotic War.
Problems of the Court and the judicial system in Adyghe society in the creative legacy of Sultan Khan-Girey
The article investigates the problem of the Court and the judicial system in the creative heritage of S.Khan-girey — the first historian, ethnographer of the Circassians. The problem is reflected in “Project of the management by mountain dwellers (Adyghes) “, in the works “Notes on Circassia “,” Circassian legends”, etc., which are of great interest. There S. Khan-girey outlines the need of transformation of the Adyghe society and first of all legal proceedings and judiciary.
The humanitarian consequences of the deportation of Armenians by young Turkish regime during the First World War
The article deals with the humanitarian consequences of the deportation of Armenians by the Young Turkish regime during the First World War. The paper discloses humanitarian, psychological, cultural, material and geopolitical consequences of deportation.
Methodologically important concepts of the analysis of social policy specific features
The aim of the article is to analyze the concept of “social policy”, its goals, objectives and also priorities, principles and problems of social policy.
Domestic researchers on land tenure in Abadzekhs, Shapsugs, Natukhais at the end of the 18th — the first half of the 19th centuries
While studying the history of the Adyghe “democratic” sub-ethnic groups — Abadzekhs, Shapsugs and Natukhai and analyzing the characteristics of social organization is important to define the terms of tenure that was common for them. This article is devoted to this urgent problem.
Internal migration of the population and military colonization of the Northwest Caucasus in the projects of A.A . Velyaminov, N.N. Raevskiy and N.I. Evdokimov
This article deals with the problem of internal migration of the Northwest Caucasus population, the process of discussion of military and civilian development projects in the region, as well as military Cossack colonization of the region and peasant settlement.
Tradition of mutual assistance among the peoples of Daghestan (the end of the 19th — the beginning of the 20th centuries.)
The article describes one of the traditional customs of the peoples of Dagestan — tradition of mutual assistance (late XIX — early XX c.). This custom is common for the Caucasian peoples, though it has its own insignificant differences. The most important thing is that similar researching works on mutual assistance contributed to formulating the whole complex of moral and ethical values and rules of conduct by the peoples of Dagestan.
V.A. Aleksentsev, V.M. Savelenko, I.S. Izgachev
Realization of positive potential of social and economic policy
In this paper, the author substantiates the thesis that realization of positive potential of social and economic policy is impossible without formation of scientific bases of the public consciousness corresponding to purposeful informing the population on topical issues of society development.
Comparative analysis of ethnoreligious and ethnocultural views of the Adyghes
The paper presents the sociological analysis of ethnoconfessional consciousness of the Adyghes in Kabardino-Balkaria. The author descibes specificity of interaction of the Adyghe socio-normative systems.
Gender aspects of social and economic transformation in Russia in estimates of female public opinion (based on the materials of the Adyghea Republic)
The social and economic changes that are not supported by adequate measures of social protection of the population, undermine the bases of society and make worse the position of the woman. Public opinion as the social regulator of behavior, requirements and the attitude of the Adyghe women to social reality promotes formation of the mass female consciousness, new value installations and orientations and strengthening legal responsibility for occurring changes. Practical requirement of the accounting of women public opinion estimates on sweeping changes that occur in the republic, their influence on the social status of women causes need to study the position of women. Information on public opinion of women should be considered as a peculiar “barometer” of her social status in society which is now very unstable.
I.V. Boldyshev, S.A. Sirotinsky, A.A. Obnosov
Social managment as a subject of sociological analysis: multiparadigm appoach
The paper discusses the preconditions of methodology of social management and the main stages of formation of social management.
A.V. Veyman, S.N. Kirichenko, A.V. Gusarov
Sociological approaches to justification of the legal social dynamics in the state and society development
The paper discusses sociological approaches to justification of the legal social dynamics in the state and society development and in creation of democratic orientations of mass and individual consciousness.
Kh.V. Dzutsev, S.A. Lyausheva, A.R. Gabuyeva
Public opinion of the population in the Republics of the North Caucasus Federal District of the Russian Federation: whether the person can succeed in life?
This paper is based on social researches carried out in January-February, 2011, at the North Ossetian Center of Social Researches ISPI of the Russian Academy of Sciences, and on mass ethnosociological researches made in the Republics of North Caucasus Federal District of the Russian Federation on a subject: “Public opinion of the population in the Republics of North Caucasus Federal District of the Russian Federation: Whether the Person can Succeed in Life?”.
D.N. Klimov, A.S. Roshchin, V.N. Grishay
Legal determination of the personality in management
An analysis is made of the system of an assessment of administrative decisions in a set of factors of legal integration for individuals determining participation in institutes of social management.
E.L. Kolesnik, A.V. Grishay, A.N. Bulkin
Current trends in development of mass leisure
The paper discusses the current trends in development of recreational potential. The authors present the sociological contents of tendencies in development of personnel management for the hospitality industry.
S.I. Kolesnik, I.A. Solovyev, M.A. Dzyuba
The organizational and administrative conflict of duties and interests between members of managing organization
The paper investigates the organizational and administrative conflict, i.e. between members of managing organization, heads and performers; the primary groups which were formed in their structure; between various divisions in this control system concerning the purposes, methods and means of administrative and organizational activity, as well as its results and social consequences.
Theoretical bases of studying interethnic interaction in the territory of the Adyghea Republic
Using an example of the multiethnic and multicultural Adyghea Republic the author studies the basic principles of interethnic interaction and examines the numerical and national structure of the population in dynamics on the basis of data of Federal State Statistics Service.
E.A. Kuchukyan, N.V. Balandina, A.I. Vasina
Methodology of sociological research of youth subculture
The paper shows that an important element of socialization is “the sociocultural environment”. We understand under this concept a real environment of the individual (group), on the one hand, and a set of representations which form a semantic “field of relations” with the world around, on the other hand. Sociological research of youth subculture and daily interaction of the main carriers of its norms and values allow us to return to Parsons classical understanding of youth culture as the necessary reality demanding detailed studying.
S.L. Lazitsky, A.P. Mikhaylov
Alternative models of society security: cultural and historical retrospective
This paper puts a number of theoretical problems of functioning of law-enforcement structures. The author defines the conditions of their interaction with the population on providing a law and order. This problem is analyzed here in a historical retrospective, by making use of available domestic experience in its decision.
Sociocultural models of civil society: theoretical aspect
In this paper, the author examines the main conceptual approaches to research of the civil society, describes models of the civil society, the formation of which is caused by cultural and historical features of society formation and designates the ways and strategy of the development of civil structures in our country.
Social consequences of loneliness
This paper is devoted to such social phenomenon as loneliness. On the basis of the research which has been carried out on the basis of the Izhevsk State Technical University, it became clear that the loneliness depends on quality rather than on quantity of social contacts.
S.M. Khronopulo, O.V. Sovershenny, M.P. Veryaskin
Conceptual problems of cultural reproduction and forecasting in formation of the institutional environment of the Russian market
The paper explores the conceptual problems of cultural reproduction and forecasting in formation of the institutional environment of the Russian market.
Parties in a context of historical and political sociology
The paper discusses the sociocultural features of emergence and development of political parties in a context of historical and political sociology. Special attention is paid to structure, mission and activity of parties in political system of the society, as well as to the analysis of party functions in the political process.
Cultural memory and ethnic identity of the Kurdish community: conceptual and methodological approach
In the paper, an analysis is made of the interrelation of cultural memory and ethnic identity based on the example of the Kurdish community. Some aspects of conceptual interrelation of categories of memory and identity in life of an ethnic group of Kurds are examined in a sociocultural context. The thesis is proved that the personality, identifying itself with the ethnic group, realizes memory in ethnic culture. The conclusion is drawn that the policy in the multiethnic region, based on dialogue, has to be aimed at preservation of each cultural / ethnic unit.
A.A. Shaov, V.N. Nekhay
Multinational corporations in system of the global economic relations: social and philosophical discourse
The paper discusses the multi-stage process of formation of multinational corporations in a historical retrospective. The multinational corporations have been shown to form a new global economic system in which leadership is defined by existence of large financial resources, advanced technologies, large sale markets and active, on a global scale, investment policy.
T.A. Yudina, A.A. Arslanova
Functional variety of recreative expectation stereotypes in mass consciousness
The paper examines the functional variety of recreative expectation stereotypes in mass consciousness as a result of functioning of a complete self-control system which is integrally characterizing features of reflection and results of this reflection in activity. The authors prove a need to identify the actual principles, laws, mechanisms and ways of development of a composite system of the individual self-control of social activity thanks to which high level of a demand of mass rest is preserved.
Kh.V. Dzutsev, A.A. Khugayeva, A.yu. Tsopanova
Criminological portrait of the Republic of North Ossetia — Alania of the North-Caucasian region of the Russian Federation
This article was written on sociological research on the topic “The level of crime in North Ossetia-Alania in the North-Caucasian Federal Region of the Russian Federation”, conducted in June 2011 by the North Ossetian Centre for Social Research ISPR RAS together with the North Ossetian Institute of Humanities and Social Studies named after v.I. Abaev.
D.I. Imagozheva, F.B. Tsogoeva
Extremism in the Northern Caucasus: a sociological analysis
The main reasons for the emergence and spread of extremism, and especially the influence of extremist threats to the North Ossetian society are considered on materials of the ethnosociological study conducted in March 2011. All the world’s religions are presented in the multi-ethnic and multi-confessional Republic of North Ossetia-Alania, where the dominant religions are Christianity and Islam.
Regional identity in the context of multi-level identity
The article contains the analysis of different approaches to the concept of «identity» and «regional identity». Regional identity is considered in correlation with territorial identity.
Social and cultural identity in the terms of transforming society
The article studies the problem of social and cultural identity in contemporary Russian society. The role, the importance of the welfare state in the formation of identity of the Russians is disclosed in the work. The author analyzes the destructive consequences of the transformation processes that led to the crisis of social and cultural identity in contemporary Russia.
Ye.N. Netrebko, P.M. (I.P.) Khakuz
Sociological analysis of the development of a competitive and socially demanded student’s personality in the educational space of the university
The article discloses the problem of becoming competitive and socially demanded person of a student’s personality in the educational space of the university in modern social and cultural conditions. This problem is related to the implementation of competence-based approach and suggests a sociological analysis of the development within the institution of higher education of social, personal and professional skills of students through a content analysis of federal state educational standards of higher education and focus-group with the participation of senior students of universities in Krasnodar.
Transformation of the status and role position of modern women in the family institution
The article deals with leading social, cultural and historically determined factors contributing to the process of social and cultural transformation of status and role situation of modern women in the family institution. The author gives the sociological research within the frame of studying problem and also a sociological comparative analysis of status and role of women in Russia and the countries of the East.
Legal mentality as a social phenomenon
The article discusses the factors of formation of legal culture. The author reveals the legal system which includes four groups of elements, such as legal thinking, law-making, legal sphere of activity, law implementation. The author also analyzes the level of legal culture. A high level of legal culture of society is essential to maintain law and order, guarantee of democracy, the condition of formation of civil society and a lawful state.
Family’s role in the implementation of equal rights of children with disabilities
The article examines the institutional conditions for implementing the principle of equality of people with disabilities with all other people. The author focuses on the fact that the realization of equality is impossible when only external conditions are created — legal and infrastructural (barrier-free environment). The construction of family life strategy of a disabled child which is activity oriented, self-actualization and the achievement of success in life are equally important.
Positive and negative factors of migration: social contradictions
The article discusses the social contradictions of positive and negative factors of migration. Labor migration in Russia and European countries is analyzed.
Sources of threats in the context of information security: the sociological aspect
The article deals with the main content of the concept information security, as well as sources of threats and key positions on its preservation.
F.K. Tuguz, S.A. Lyausheva
Ethical code of the University as a resource for students’ socialization
The article discusses the role and significance of the ethical code as a tool for education and socialization in the educational space of the modern university. Key principles of its development and implementation in the university area are identified. The results of the study of the main problem areas and planes of relationship of educational process in high school and the results of surveys of students are given.
Prevention and fight against drug addiction
The paper discusses a drug trafficking in the country. The author examines experience of the foreign states in the sphere of prevention of the population narcotization and proposes measures aimed at limiting this antisocial phenomenon.
The theoretical and methodological bases for creation of a system of legal foreign investment regulation in Russia
This paper explores the theoretical and methodological bases for creation of a system of legal foreign investment regulation. Key elements of the system at the present stage of its development are allocated. The author investigates the dynamics of the investment legislation and substantiates the tendencies and prospects of system genesis in the area under study.
Genesis and tendency of development of institute of insolvency (bankruptcy) in Russia
The paper discusses the history of insolvency (bankruptcy) in Russia since ancient times and up to now.
I.A. Antonov, L.G. Antonova
Development of the Institute of Criminal Procedure protection of the rights and freedoms of the individual in the course of judicial reform in the Russian Federation
Article deals with the origin, formation and development of the Institute of Criminal Procedure rights and freedoms protection of the individual with the position held in Russian judicial reform. Choosing specific legal institution, the authors consider ways to improve the efficiency of the protection mechanism and protect the rights and freedoms of the subjects of criminal legal proceedings by comprehensive analysis in the aspect of state policy in the field of the law enforcement system reformation and improvemen.
Some aspects of the police prevention of drug crime among infants
In article is represented the analysis of the reasons and the conditions promoting distribution of narcocrime among infants and related other negative social phenomena. Aspects of activity of police officers on narcocrime prevention among infants are considered.
Features of method determination in the cases of infanticide
The article discusses the concept of the method of the crime. Its structural component is determined and the peculiarities of the manifestation of this category for homicide mother of the newborn child are defined.
D.N. Lozovsky, S.V. Fidelsky
On the features of excitation of criminal cases about the crimes connected with deliberate bankruptcy
The article is devoted to problem issues arising in the process of initiation and investigation of criminal cases about the crimes connected with deliberate bankruptcy.
System of territorial public self-administration in European countries
The article offers an analysis of three variants of territorial public self- administration in European countries: English, german, Polish. All of them in one way or another can be used as a positive experience in the formation of the Russian national policy of local government. Russian legislators and practitioners need to consider the experience of territorial self-administration in Europe.
Financial and legal nature of electronic money
The article discusses various viewpoints of financial and legal regulation of electronic money. It is important to note that the statutory definition of electronic money allows them to declare an object of legal regulation, to ensure their efficient operation and use in the money circulation since these funds are made by business entities to credit institutions (counted without opening bank accounts) and may be in rubles and in foreign currency. The emergence of the modern concept of electronic money is the next stage in the evolution (computerization) of the concept of money along the path loss of the intrinsic value of their own money, as the transition on the information stage of development money from analog to digital form.
R.N. Dmitriyeva, M.W. Dmitrieva
Formation of cross-cultural interactive competence in teaching to translation
The paper deals with the questions of studying strategies of communicative behavior of representatives of business foreign-language society. Special attention is paid to formation of cross-cultural professional competence in foreign language training. In recent years the production sphere of communication considerably quickened that causes need of mastering skills of cross-cultural communication by the future expert. The higher school foreign language program has to be based on understanding of language as means of communication in a certain situation and with a certain communicative task.
Suffering as a basis of song art
In this paper, the suffering is examined as a basis of song art. The author shows the main characteristics of sense-forming concepts of creation of song traditions and formation of performing style of soloists, singers and musicians. The theme of suffering as a basis of song art is the most complicated form of empathy of the natural emotional human life, refracting in art feature of the creative process.
Philosophical and esthetic aspects of a phenomenon of the musical in culture
An analysis is made of scientific literature on philosophical and esthetic aspects of a phenomenon of the musical in culture. The music phenomenon is examined as indissoluble unity of two forms – the essence of music (a musical substance) and the musical art belonging to the world of the person. The system analysis of such way of human life, as activity is carried out. The author shows specificity of music as the philosophical and esthetic phenomenon corresponding to internal activity of musical consciousness of the person, as well as reveals relations between the processes happening in culture, and their reflection in a figurative system and in the expressive sphere of musical art. The following functions of philosophical and esthetic aspects of a phenomenon of the musical in culture are designated: gnoseological, humanistic, communicative, training, bringing up, informative, standard and reflexive.
Sacred places of the Abkhazians and Adyghes as an object of scientific research
The paper proposes the approaches and the methods necessary to study sacral spaces in modern culture of the Abkhazians and Adyghes. Pointing to the high social status of sacred places at the Abkhazians, the author puts forward a thesis that it is necessary to carry out comparative and typological research of this social institute focused on defining its specific characteristics at the related people.
Narratives of multiculturalistic discourse
The article presents the results of study of multiculturalism as a discourse.
Methodological problems in the research of cultural heritage
Worked out in the 1970s-1980s by UNESCO the concept of “ cultural heritage” was the subject of research in the various sciences. The aim of the article is to study the methodological aspects of the world cultural heritage. The task was to analyze the main methodological problems in the study of the concept of “cultural heritage”, to explore the place and the role of cultural heritage in the cultural traditions and contemporary practice. The object of the research is the world’s cultural heritage. The subject of the research is methodological problem in the study of cultural heritage. Conclusions: (a) the concept of “cultural heritage” was founded in UNESCO Declaration in 1972, (b) cultural heritage can be regarded as an assemblage of artifacts of spiritual and material culture, (c) cultural heritage is an important strategic national resource and (d) in the basis of the research methodology of cultural heritage it is advisable to use a systematic approach to the culture of local researchers.
Specificity of interethnic intensity manifestation in places of the Kurd compact settlement in the Adyghea Republic
The paper investigates the parameters of interethnic intensity in places of the Kurd compact settlement in the Adyghea Republic. Research of interethnic interaction is conducted in terms of methodology of interethnic intensity. Mechanisms of overcoming interethnic intensity are proposed.
Political elite of Russia in researches of domestic political scientists and sociologists
The paper discusses the theoretical and methodological approaches to studying the Russian modern political elite, presented in works of domestic political scientists and sociologists, the problem related to ensuring constructive interaction of political elite and civil society and crisis overcoming in their relationship. It is emphasized that the political elite in modernized society focuses the administrative actions on development priorities.
The Armenian – Azerbaijan relations and the Nagorno – Karabakh conflict
An analysis is made of the Armenian-Azerbaijan relations and the ways of solution of the Nagorno-Karabakh conflict. The position of the sides on settlement of the Nagorno-Karabakh conflict, as well as the role of the OSCE countries in this issue is analyzed.
Legitimacy of municipal authority in the conditions of multiethnic society
This paper deals with the problems of legitimacy of municipal authority in the conditions of multiethnic society. The reasons of its delegimitization are separately allocated. A study is made of the model of co-public democracy and its refraction on municipal level. The main objective of this publication is studying the potential of legitimacy of local level of the power in political process in the conditions of transformation of the whole political system.
Abstracts of Monographs
The theoretical and methodological problems of Modern History study in Russian Historiography at the turn of the 20 – 21st centuries: monograph
A. Yu. Shadzhe
Russia's North Caucasus: History and Modernity
The book about the book (The review of Z.Yu. Khuako’s book “From writing – to book culture”)